تاثیر بازدارندگی تخم‌ریزی و کشندگی اسانس‌های رزماری، نعناع فلفلی و اکالیپتوس و عصاره آویشن باغی، فرموله‌شده به صورت نانو و میکروامولسیون، روی سفیدبالک Bemisia tabaci در شرایط گلخانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای حشره شناسی کشاورزی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس دانشگاهی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران. پژوهشگر مرکزتحقیقات گیاهان دارویی

2 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 پژوهشگر مرکزتحقیقات گیاهان دارویی باریج، کاشان، ایران

4 استاد گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

برخی اسانس‌ها و عصاره‌های  گیاهی دارای خواص حشره­کشی مطلوبی علیه سفیدبالک پنبه Bemisia tabaci Gen. می‌باشند ولی استفاده عملی و تجاری از آنها با توجه به فرار بودن و ناپایداری این مواد، کمتر صورت گرفته است. در این مطالعه اسانس­های رزماریL.  Rosmarinus officinalis، نعناع فلفلی Mentha piperita L.، اکالیپتوس
L. globulesEucalyptus   و عصاره آویشن باغی L. Thymus vulgaris به صورت میکرو و نانوامولسیون فرموله ‌شد و کارایی حشره‌کشی و میزان بازدارندگی تخم‌ریزی این ترکیبات در شرایط گلخانه مورد آزمون قرار گرفت. ابتدا آزمون­های زیست‌سنجی به روش غوطه‌ورسازی برگ‌های حاوی پوره سن دو و سه انجام و شاخص LC90 تخمین زده شد. سپس آزمون بازدارندگی تخم‌ریزی  با روش پروتکل انتخاب آزاد (با اندازه‌گیری شاخص میزان تخمگذاری روی بوته‌ها) و همچنین آزمون میزان کشندگی تخم، پورة سنین مختلف و شفیره در غلظت LC90، در مقایسه با صابون گیاهی پالیزین®، آب مقطر و شاهد (بدون هیچ تیماری) انجام شد. تیمار نانوامولسیون محتوی مجموع اسانس‌ها (هرکدام از اسانس‌ها 2 درصد) با LC90 برابر با 1208/3 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر، سمیت بالایی نسبت به بقیه تیمارها روی پوره سن دو و سه این آفت داشت. همچنین این تیمار با میانگین 2/18 درصد تخم روی بوته‌ تیمارشده، کمترین درصد را بین تیمارها داشت که نشان‌دهندة بیشترین میزان بازدارندگی تخم‌ریزی است. این تیمار میانگین مرگ و میر تخم 0/25 درصد و مرگ و میر پوره و شفیره 6/51 درصد را نیز نشان داد. تیمار میکروامولسیون محتوی مجموع اسانس‌ها و عصاره (هرکدام از اسانس‌ها 2 درصد و عصاره 20 درصد) نیز اثرات قابل قبولی داشت (پارامترهای فوق به ترتیب 4617/3 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر،3/23، 3/42 و 0/74 درصد). کارایی این دو تیمار از صابون گیاهی پالیزین® و سایر تیمارها (میکروامولسیونی از 20 درصد عصاره، مواد جانبی تیمارها، آب مقطر و شاهد (بدون هیچ تیماری)) بیشتر بود و این دو تیمار می‌توانند با انجام آزمونهای تکمیلی در مدیریت تلفیقی این آفت مورد استفاده قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Repellent and lethal effect of essential oils of rosemary, peppermint and eucalyptus and thyme extract, formulated as nano- and microemulsions, on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae) under greenhouse condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Bolandnazar 1
  • mohammad ghadamyari 2
  • mohammadreza memarzadeh 3
  • jalal jalali sandi 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Agricultural Entomology. Department of Plant Protection, University Campus, University of Guilan, Rasht. Iran. Reasercher of Barij Medicinal Plants Research Centre, Kashan, Iran
2 2- Associate Professor of Department of plant protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht. Iran
3 Reasercher of Barij Medicinal Plants Research Centre, Kashan, Iran
4 Professor of Department of plant protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht. Iran.
چکیده [English]

Some essential oils and plant extracts potentially possess insecticidial properties against Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen.; however, the practical and commercial use of these compounds have not developed due to their volatility and instability . In this study, essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha piperita L. and Eucalyptus globules L. and extract of Thymus vulgaris L., were formulated as micro and nano-emulsion, and their insecticide efficiency and oviposition inhibitory effects were tested under greenhouse conditions. First, bioassey tests were done using the leaf dipping method, on 2nd and 3rd nymphal instar and LC90 was estimated. Then, the oviposition inhibitory test with choice test method (by measuring the index of laying on plants), as well as  eggs mortality rate, and  all nymphal and pupa mortality rate at a concentration of LC90 were calculated, in comparison with herbal soap Palizin® distilled water and control (without any treatments). Nano-emulsion treatment containing all  essential oils (2% of each ) at a concentration of  LC90, had a high toxicity of 3.1208 mg/l on 2nd and 3rd nymphal instar in comparison with other treatments . Also, this treatment with an average of 18.2% had the lowest egg percentage per treated plant,  indicating the highest  oviposition inhibitory activity. Moreover, this treatment showed an average egg mortality of 25.0%, while, in nymphal and pupal satge, average mortality of 51.6% was recored. Micro-emulsion treatment containing essential oils and extracts (2% of each essential oils and 20% of extract) also exhibited acceptable effects (the above parameters were 3.4617 mg/l, 23.3%, 42.3% and 74.0% respectively). The efficacy of these two treatments was higher than herbal soap Palazin® and other treatments, thus these two treatments can be used in the Integrated Pest Management, after doing the complementary tests.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Botanical Insecticide
  • Sweetpotato whitefly
  • Toxicity
  • Bioassey

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