اثر ترجیح مرحله سنی میزبان در زنبـور (Aenasius bambawalei (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)، انگـل‌واره شپـشک آرد آلــود پنبـه (Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae، در شرایط دسترسی انتخابی و غیرانتخابی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، فارسی


1 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان


شپشک آرد آلود پنبه  Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley یکی از آفات مهم و چندین خوار در مناطق گرمسیری و نیمه گرمسیری بوده و در سال‌های اخیر خسارت شدیدی به درختچه‌های زینتی ختمی چینی جنوب کشور وارد کرده است. در این پژوهش، ترجیح میزبانی زنبور HayatAenasius bambawalei هنگام دسترسی به سنین مختلف پورگی و ماده بالغ شپشک آرد آلود پنبه در شرایط دسترسی انتخابی و غیرانتخابی بررسی شد. همچنین طول دوره رشدی و اندازه بدن زنبور هنگام پرورش روی پوره سن سوم و ماده بالغ مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، زنبورهای ماده تمایلی به پارازیته کردن پوره‌های سن یک شپشک از خود نشان ندادند و همچنین هیچ گونه ظهوری از پوره‌های پارازیته شده در سن دوم مشاهده نشد. در هر دو شرایط دسترسی انتخابی و غیرانتخابی به پوره سن سوم و شپشک‌های ماده بالغ، به طور معنی‌داری شپشک‌های بالغ بیشتر پارازیته شدند و نسبت جنسی (درصد ماده‌ها) زنبور روی این سن رشدی در مقایسه با پوره سن سوم بیشتر بود. همچنین طول دوره پیش از بلوغ زنبورهای نر و ماده هنگام پرورش روی ماده‌های بالغ شپشک طولانی‌تر از زمانی بود که میزبان در مرحله پوره سن سوم پارازیته شد، اما زنبورهای ظاهر شده از ماده‌های بالغ در مقایسه با پوره سن سوم، اندازه بزرگتری داشتند. در یک جمع­بندی، زنبور A. bambawalei قادر به کنترل قابل قبول سنین بالای رشدی شپشک آرد آلود پنبه بود و امید می‌رود بتوان از این زنبور به عنوان یک عامل زیستی در کنترل موفق شپشک آرد‍ آلود استفاده نمود.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Host stage preference of Aenasius bambawalei (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), the parasitoid of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), under choice and no-choice access

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Tamoli Torfi 1
  • Arash Rasekh 1
  • Mohammad Saeed Mossadegh 1
  • Ali Rajabpour 2
1 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
چکیده [English]

The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is a phytophagous insect with high populations causing serious damage to the Chinese hibiscus shrubs (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) from south of Iran. This research was conducted to determine the host preference of Aenasius bambawalei Hayat when had choice or no-choice access to different stages of cotton mealybug. Moreover, biological characteristics and body size of wasps when reared on third nymphal instar and adult females was studied under laboratory condition. According to the results, female wasps did not parasitize the first nymphal stage. The second nymphal stage was parasitized without any adult wasp emergence. The results revealed that the percentage of mealybug mummified, and sex ratio (% female) was significantly higher when mealybug hosts were parasitized at adult females compared to third nymphal stage, in both choice and no-choice access. The developmental times (days) and body size (hind tibia length and antenna length) of A. bambawalei females and males developing in cotton mealybug adult female was significantly longer than those reared on third nymphal instar. The results indicated the high control ability of A. bambawalei, on the older growth stages of cotton mealybug. It is hoped that this parasitoid wasp can be used as a biological agent to control Ph. solenopsis, on the Chinese hibiscus shrubs, H. rosa-sinensis.    

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Biological characteristics"
  • "Chinese hibiscus shrubs"
  • "Koinobiont"
  • "Reproductive activity"

Abbas, G., Arif, M. J., Saleem, M. S. & Shah, F. (2012) Studies on biology of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Punjab, Pakistan-a pest of cotton and other crops. Pakistan Entomologist 34 (2), 131–136.

Abbas, G., Arif, M. J. & Saeed, S. (2005) Systematic status of a new species of the genus Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae), a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum  in Pakistan. Pakistan Entomologist 27, 83–84.

Ameri, M., Rasekh, A., Michaud, J. P. & Allahyari, H. (2013) Morphometric indicators for quality assessment in the aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Braconidae: Aphidiinae). European Journal of Entomology 110 (3), 519–525.

Bellows, T. S. (1985) Effects of host age and host availability on developmental period, adult size, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity in Lariophagus distinguendus Forster (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Researches in Population Ecology 27, 55–64.

Chau, A. & Mackauer, M. (2000a) Dropping of pea aphids from feeding site: A choice by the parasitoid wasp Ephedrus californicus: a test of host size models. Oecologia 88, 501–514.

Chau, A. & Mackauer, M. (2000b) Host-instar selection in the aphid parasitoid Monoctonus paulensis (Hym.: Braconidae: Aphidiinae): a preference for small pea aphids. European Journal of Entomology 97, 347–353.

Chow, A. & Mackauer, M. (1991) Patterns of host selection by four species (Hymenoptera) parasitoids: influence of host switching. Ecological Entomology 16, 403–410.

Fuchs, T. W., Stewart, J. W., Minzenmayer, R. & Rose, M. (1991) First record of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in cultivated cotton in the United States. Southwestern Entomology 16 (3), 215–221.

Gerling, D., Roitberg, B. D. & Mackauer, M. (1990) Instar specific defense of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum: influence on oviposition success of the parasite Aphelinus asychis (Hym.: Aphelinidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 3, 501–514.

Godfray, H. C. J. (1994) Parasitoids: Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology. 473 pp. Princeton University Press.

Grasswitz, T. R. & Burts, E. C. (1995) Effects of native natural enemies on the population dynamics of the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Hom: Pseudococcidae), in apple and pear orchards. Entomophaga 40, 105–117.

Gripenberg, S., Mayhew, P. J., Parnell, M. & Roslin, T. (2010) A meta-analysis of preference–performance relationships in phytophagous insects. Ecology Letters 13, 383–393.

Harvey, J. A., Harvey, I. F. & Thompson, D. J. (1994) Flexible larval growth allows use of a range of host sizes by a parasitoid wasp. Ecology 75, 1420–1428.

Harvey, J. A. & Strand, M. R. (2002) The developmental strategies of endoparasitoid wasps vary with host feeding ecology. Ecology 83, 2439–2451.

Hayat, M. (2009) Description of a new species of Aenasius Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), India. Biosystematica 3 (1), 21–26.

He, L. F., Feng, D. D., Li, P., Zhou, Z. S. & Xu, Z. F. (2015) Reproductive modes and daily fecundity of Aenasius bambawalei (Hym.: Encyrtidae), a parasitoid of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hem.: Pseudococcidae). Florida Entomologist 98 (1), 385–260.

Hodgson, C.J., Abbas, G., Arif, M.J., Saeed, S. & Karar, H. (2008) Phenacoccus solenopsisTinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), an invasive mealybug damaging cotton in Pakistan and India, with a discussion on seasonal morphological variation. Zootaxa 19 (13), 1–35.

Johnson, K. & Burley, N. T. (1997) Mating tactics and mating systems of birds. Ornithological Monographs 1997, 21–60.

Kaur, H. & Virk, J. S. (2011) Feeding potential of  Cryptolaemus montrouzieri against the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis. Phytoparasitica 40 (2), 131–136.

Ketterson, E. D., Parker, P. G., Raouf, S. A., Nolan Jr., V., Ziegenfus, C. & Chandler, C. R. (1997) The relative impact of extra-pair fertilizations on variation in male and female reproductive success in Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis). Ornithological Monographs 1997, 81–101.

Mackauer, M. & Sequeira, R. (1993) Patterns of development in insect parasites. Parasites and Pathogens of Insects. In Beckage, N. E., Thompson, S. N., & Federici, B. A. (Eds). The Effect of Superparasitism on Development of the Solitary Parasitoid. 355 pp.        Academic Press.

Michaud, J. P. & Mackauer, M. (1995) Oviposition behavior of Monoctonus paulensis (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae): factors influencing reproductive allocation to hosts and host patches. Annals of Entomological Society of America 88, 220–226.

Moghadam, M. & Bagheri, N. A. (2010) A new record of mealybug pest in the South Iran, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Coccidea: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 30 (1), 67–69.

Mossadegh, M. S., Vafaei, S., Farsi, A., Zarghami, S., Esfandiari, M., Dehkordi, F. S., Fazelinejad, A. & Seyfollahi, F. (2015) Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae), its natural enemies and host plants in Iran. 1st Iranian International Congress of Entomology. 29-31 August.Tehran. Iran, 159-167.

Nagrare, V. S., Kranthi, S., Biradar, V. K., Zade, N. N., Sangode, V., Kakde, G., Shukla, R. M., Shivare, D., Khadi, B. M. & Kranthi, K. R. (2009) Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton in India. Bulletin of Entomological Reserch 99, 537–541.

Nagrare, V. S., Kranthi, S., Kumar, R., Dhara, B., Amutha, M., Deshmukh, A. J., Sone, K.D. & Kranthi, R. (2011) Compendium of cotton mealybugs. 42pp. CICR publication.

Nahiyoon, A. A., Mahmood, R. & Zaman, B. (2016) Population trends of mealybug  Phenacoccus solenopsis and field parasitism percentage of Aenasius bambawalei at district Mirpukhas, Sindh. American Research Thoughts 2 (3), 3470–3480.

Najafpour, P., Rasekh, A. & Esfandiari, M. (2016) The effect of choice and no-choice access on host (Aphis fabae) instars preference, in different ages and sizes of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 36 (2), 101–111.

Rasekh, A., Michaud, J. P., Allahyari, H. & Sabahi, Q. (2010) The foraging behavior of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall), a thelytokous parasitoid of the black bean aphid in Iran. Journal of Insect Behavior 23, 165–179.

Ridley, M. (1988) Mating frequency and fecundity in insects. Biological Reviews. 63, 509–549.

Royer, L. & McNeil, J. N. (1993) Male investment in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): impact on female longevity and reproductive        performance. Functional Ecology 7, 209–215.

Sangle, P. M., Korat, D. M. & Patel, B. H. (2013) A note on Morphometry and post larval life stages of Aenasius bambawalei. Karnataka Journal Agricultural Science 26 (1), 152–154.

Schmid, M., Sieber, R., Zimmermann, Y.S. & Vorburger, C. (2012) Development,     specificity and sub lethal effects of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids. Functional Ecology 26, 207–215.

Sequeira, R. & Mackauer, M. (1992a) Covariance of adult size and development time in the parasitoid wasp Aphidius ervi in relation to the size of its host, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Evolutionary Ecology 6, 34–44.

Sequeira, R. & Mackauer, M. (1992b) Nutritional ecology of an insect host-parasitoid association: the pea aphid-Aphidius ervi system. Ecology 73, 183–189.

Seyfollahi, F., Esfandiari, M., Mossadegh, M. S. & Rasekh, A. (2016) Life table parameters of the coccinellid Hyperaspis polita, a native predator in Iran, feeding on the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 19, 835–840. [In Persian with English summary].

Solangi, G. S. (2011) Biological control of cotton mealybug. Ph.D. Thesis, Sindh Agriculture University. Tandojana, Pakistan.

SPSS. (1998) SPSS 8.0 for Windows. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.

Underwood, D. L. A. (1994) Intraspecific variability in host plant quality and ovipositional preferences in Eucheira socialis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Ecological Entomology 19, 245–256.

Valladares, G. & Lawton, J. H. (1991) Host plant selection in the holly leaf-miner: does mother know best? Journal of Animal Ecology 60, 227–240.

Walker, A. M. & Hoy, M. A. (2003) Responses of Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenopterta: Aphidiidae) to different instars of Toxoptera citricida (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of Entomology and Zoology 29 (2), 193–201.

Wang, Y. Watson, G. W. & Zhang, R. (2010) The potential distribution of an invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis and its threat to cotton in Asia. Agriculture for Entomology 12, 403–416.

Weisser, W. W. (1994) Age-dependent foraging behavior and host-instar preference of the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus cardui. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 70, 1–10.

Zainul-Abdin, R., Arif, M. J., Gogi, M. D., Arshad, M., Hussain, F., Abbas, S. K., Shaina, H. & Manzoor, A. (2012) Biological characteristics and host stage preference of mealybug parasitoid Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hym.:Encyrtidae). Pakistan      Entomologist 34 (1), 47–50.

Zainul-Abdin, R., Hussain, F., Ahsankhan, M., Abbas, S.K., Manzoor, A. & Shaina, H. (2013) Reproductive fitness of mealybug parasitoid, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hym.: Encyrtidae ). World Applied Science Journal 26 (9), 1198–1203.

Zhang, J., Huang, J., Lu, Y. & Xia, T. (2016) Effects of temperature and host stage on the parasitization rate and offspring sex ratio of Aenasius bambawalei Hayat in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. Available from: Peer J4:Dol10.7717/PeerJ.1586     (accessed 10 June 2019).