تأثیر کشت نواری چغندرقند- یونجه بر تراکم جمعیت خرطوم‌بلند چغندرقند، Lixus incanescens (Col.: Curculionidae)، و تنوع گونه‌ای دشمنان طبیعی آن

نویسندگان

گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل.

چکیده

خرطوم‌بلند چغندرقند، Lixus incanescens Boheman، یکی از آفات مهم چغندرقند، Beta vulgaris L.، در بیشتر نقاط ایران است. کشت نواری چغندرقند و یونجه، Medicago sativa L.، راه‌کار مناسبی برای افزایش کارایی عوامل بیوکنترل خرطوم‌بلند چغندرقند می‌باشد. در این پژوهش تراکم جمعیت خرطوم‌بلند چغندرقند و تنوع گونه‌ای دشمنان طبیعی آن در کشت نواری چغندرقند- یونجه و سیستم تک‌کشتی چغندرقند طی بررسی‌های مزرعه‌ای در سال‌های 1391 و 1392 در شهرستان جوین، استان خراسان رضوی مطالعه شد. در هر تاریخ نمونه‌برداری فراوانی خرطوم‌بلند چغندرقند و دشمنان طبیعی آن به‌ازای یک گیاه شمارش و یادداشت شدند. تراکم جمعیت خرطوم‌بلند چغندرقند در سیستم کشت نواری در مقایسه با سیستم تک‌کشتی در هر دو سال مورد مطالعه به‌طور معنی‌داری کمتر بود. زنبور پارازیتویید لارو Bracon intercessor Nees در هر دوسیستم کشت، هفت گونه شکارگر تخم در سیستم کشت نواری و سه گونه شکارگر تخم در سیستم تک‌کشتی جمع‌آوری و شناسایی شدند. درصد پارازیتیسم لاروها و تراکم هریک از شکارگرها در سیستم کشت نواری به‌طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از سیستم تک‌کشتی بود. شاخص تنوع گونه‌ای Shannon برای دشمنان طبیعی در کشت نواری در مقایسه با سیستم تک‌کشتی بیشتر بود. مقدار شاخص شباهت Morisita-Horn برای ترکیب گونه‌ای دشمنان طبیعی بین دو سیستم کشت چغندرقند 923/0 به‌دست آمد. براساس نتایج تحقیق حاضر می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد که کشت نواری چغندرقند- یونجه باعث افزایش تنوع گونه‌ای دشمنان طبیعی خرطوم‌بلند چغندرقند و کاهش تراکم جمعیت L. incanescens شد. کمّی کردن تعداد و فراوانی گونه‌های دشمنان طبیعی در مزارع چغندرقند گام مهمی در مدیریت خرطوم‌بلند چغندرقند می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of strip cropping of sugar beet-alfalfa on population density of the sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens (Col.: Curculionidae) and species diversity of its natural enemies

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. A. Abedi
  • A. A. Abedi
  • G. Nouri-Ganbalani
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens Boheman, is an important insect pest of sugar beet, Beta vulgaris L., in many parts of Iran. Strip cropping of sugar beet and alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., is a suitable strategy for improving the effectiveness of biocontrol agents of the sugar beet weevil. In this research, the population density of the sugar beet weevil and diversity of its natural enemies were studied in the strip cropping of sugar beet-alfalfa in comparison with the monoculture of sugar beet, in Juvein countryside, Khorasan Razavi province, from 2012 to 2013. In each sampling, the abundance of the sugar beet weevil and its natural enemies per plant were recorded. The densities of the sugar beet weevils in the strip cropping were significantly lower comparing to the monoculture. The larva of the hymenopteran parasitoid species Bracon intercessor Nees in both culture systems as well as seven egg predator species in strip cropping system and three egg predator species in the monoculture system were found. The percentage of larval parasitism and the densities of each predator in the strip cropping were significantly higher than the monoculture. The Shannon diversity index for the complexity of natural enemies in the strip cropping was higher comparing to the monoculture. The value of Morisita-Horn index for the complexity of the natural enemies between the experimental sugar beet cropping systems was calculated as 0.923. Based on these results, we have concluded that the strip cropping of sugar beet-alfalfa leads to higher diversity of natural enemies of the sugar beet weevil and lower population density of L. incanescens. In addition, the quantification of the predators’ species richness and abundance in the sugar beet fields remains as an effective method to improve the management of the sugar beet weevil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Species richness
  • species abundance
  • natural enemies
  • Lixus incanescens
  • sugar beet

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