نمونه‌برداری دنباله‌دار شته‌های Rhopalosiphum maidis و Schizaphis graminum (Hem.: Aphididae) در مزارع گندم منطقه باجگاه، استان فارس

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شیراز، دانشکده کشاورزی، بخش گیاه پزشکی

2 دانشگاه شیراز، دانشکده کشاورزی، بخش گیاه پزشکی.

3 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی لرستان، خرم‌آباد.

چکیده

طی نمونه‌برداری‌هایی که در سال زراعی 90-‌1389 از شته‌های Rhopalosiphum maidis F. و Schizaphis graminum R. در مزارع گندم منطقه باجگاه، استان فارس، انجام شد، پراکنش فضایی و مدل‌های نمونه‌گیری دنباله‌ای با دقت ثابت مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. برای این منظور دو مزرعه دو هکتاری انتخاب و به‌صورت هفتگی نمونه‌برداری انجام شد. در هر تاریخ تعداد 200 بوته گندم به‌طور تصادفی انتخاب و تعداد شته‌های آن‌ها شمارش شد. براساس مقدار RV، بهترین واحد نمونه چهار ساقه محاسبه شد. این داده‌ها برای تعیین الگوی توزیع فضایی جمعیت شته به دو روش رگرسیونی Taylor و Iwao مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. براساس این دو روش، توزیع شته‌های R. maidis و S. graminum در مزارع گندم تجمعی بود. همچنین، مقدار ضریب تبیین (R2)، روش Taylor را مناسب‌تر از روش Iwao نشان داد. باتوجه به معنی‌دار نشدن شیب خط رگرسیون بین دو گونه R. maidis و S. graminum، مدل Green یکسانی برای این دو گونه ارایه شد. در این مدل، در سطوح دقت 15/0‌، 25/0 و 3/0، به‌ترتیب 20، 12 و 9 عدد نمونه (چهار ساقه) مورد نیاز بود. مقایسه روش Green با روش متداول نمونه‌برداری نشان داد که در سطوح دقت 15/0، 25/0 و 3/0، تعداد نمونه مورد نیاز به‌ترتیب 05/1 ± 8/77، 91/0 ± 3/78 و 81/0 ± 4/81 درصد کاهش یافت. بر اساس مدل Wilson و Room، زمانی‌که میانگین جمعیت شته‌های R. maidis و S. graminum، 6/1، 86/3 و 62/5 عدد در یک واحد نمونه بود، نسبت آلودگی بوته‌های گندم در مزرعه به‌ترتیب به 50/0، 75/0 و 85/0 رسید. بنابراین، با افزایش درصد آلودگی نمونه‌ها، تعداد نمونه لازم کاهش خواهد یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Sequential sampling of Rhopalosiphum maidis and Schizaphis graminum (Hem.: Aphididae) in wheat fields of Badjgah, Fars province, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • V. Soltani Ghasemloo 1
  • M. Aleosfoor 2
  • A. A. Mohiseni 3
1 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
2 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
3 Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Between 2010 and 2011, spatial distribution and fixed precision sequential sampling plans were determined for two aphids, Rhopalosiphum maidis F. and Schizaphis graminum R., in wheat fields in Badjgah countryside of Iranian Fars province. For this purpose, two fields of two hectares each were selected and sampled on weekly basis. Each sample consisted of 200 randomly selected wheat plants along with the total number of counted aphids. Based on RV, the best sample unit was four stems. This data was used to describe spatial distribution pattern of R. maidis and S. graminum by Taylor’s power law (TPL) and Iwao’s patchiness regression methods. The results indicated aggregated spatial distribution of aphids' populations in wheat fields, based on the mentioned methods. The TPL provided a better description of the aphids' spatial distribution. Since regression line slopes were not significantly different for S. graminum and R. maidis, the same Green model was proposed for both species. In this model, minimum numbers of samples were 20, 12 and 9 for precision levels of 0.15, 0.25 and 0.3, respectively. Comparing Green and conventional methods in 0.15, 0.25 and 0.3 precision levels showed that the number of required samples were reduced 77.8 ± 1.05, 78.3 ± 0.91 and 81.4 ± 0.81 percent, respectively. Based on Wilson and Room's model, when the mean populations of aphids were 1.6, 3.86 and 5.62, the proportion of infestation in the field were 0.5, 0.75 and 0.85, respectively. Therefore, by increasing the infestation percentage of the samples, the number of required samples will be reduced.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • spatial distribution
  • Rhopalosiphum maidis
  • Schizaphis graminum
  • Sequential sampling
  • Wheat

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