تنوع زیستی سنک‌های جنس (Orius (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae در اقلیم‌ها و فصول مختلف استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد و بررسی تأثیر بوم نظام کشاورزی روی تنوع زیستی این شکارگران

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی.

2 دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی.

چکیده

سن­های جنس Oriusبه‌عنوان دشمنان طبیعی بسیاری از آفات گیاهی در دنیا شناخته می­شوند. این مطالعه به­‌منظور بررسی فون و تنوع زیستی سنک­های Anthocoriade در شرایط مختلف اقلیمی استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد و تأثیر بوم نظام کشاورزی روی تنوع زیستی سن­های شکارگر این جنس، صورت گرفت. سه اقلیم و از هر اقلیم سه اکوسیستم (باغی، زراعی و دست­ورزی نشده) و از هر اکوسیستم سه تکرار انتخاب و نمونه‌برداری هر دو هفته یک‌­بار انجام شد. شناسایی گونه­ها براساس ژنیتالیای افراد نر صورت گرفت و تعیین تنوع زیستی با استفاده از شاخص چیرگی شانون-وینر انجام شد. در مجموع شش گونه شامل O. s albidipennis (Reuter)، O. niger (Wolff)، O. laevigatus (Fiber)،Orius pallidicornis (Reuter)،O. vicinus (Ribaut)، (Reuter) O. horvati از مناطق مختلف این استان شناسایی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که در اقلیم گرمسیری O. albidipennis و در اقلیم سردسیری گونه O. niger به‌عنوان گونه غالب خانواده Anthocoridae در استان کهگیلویه و بویراحمد بودند. شاخص شانون محاسبه شده در سه منطقه گرم، معتدل و سرد به­ترتیب برابر 245/1، 233/1و 9896/0 بود. تنوع زیستی سن­های جنس Orius در اکوسیستم دست­ورزی نشده به‌صورت معنی­داری بیش­تر از اکوسیستم دست­ورزی شده بود. در ضمن با توجه به اثرات سوء دست­ورزی تنوع زیستی و جمعیت سنک­های Orius، در بوم نظام­های کشاورزی، اعمالی مانند تنوع کشت، کشت توام و باقی گذاشتن علف­های هرز به‌­صورت پرچین­های اطراف مزرعه و یا جزایر سبز می­تواند موجب افزایش تنوع و به­دنبال آن کارایی این شکارگران شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biodiversity of genus Orius (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in various climate regions and seasons of Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province and evaluation of agro-ecosystem effects on their biodiversity

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Davari 1
  • A. A. Seraj 1
  • A. Rajabpour 2
1 Department of plant protection, college of agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Ahwaz, Iran.
2 Department of plant protection, college of agriculture, Ramin agriculture and natural resources university of Khouzestan, Mollasani, Ahwaz.
چکیده [English]

The members of genus Orius are known as natural enemies of many of plant pests in the world. We studied the fauna and biodiversity of the family Anthocoridae bugs in different environmental conditions of Kohgiloyeh and Boyrahmad province of Iran. Sampling took place in three climates and from three ecosystems (gardens, farms and virgin uncultivated lands) throught three replicationsevery other week. Species were identified based on male genitalia, and the biodiversity study was done using Shannon-Wiener dominance index through SDR software. The species Orius albidipennis (Reuter), O. niger (Wolff), O. laevigatus (Fiber),O. pallidicornis (Reuter),O. vicinus (Ribaut), O. horvati(Reuter) were identfied. The results showed that O. albidipennis was the dominant species in tropical climate and O. niger was the dominant species in cold climate. The Shannon-Wiener indices of tropical, moderate and cool climates were 1.245, 1.233, and 0.9896 respectively. Biodiversity of Orius spp in non manipulated ecosystems were significantly higher than manipulated (agricultural) ecosystems. Therefore biodiversities of the natural enemies were significantly affected by climate and ecosystem conditions.Regarding the side effects of ecosystem manipulating treatments on the biodiversity of the predatory bugs, some conservative treatments such as multi-cropping, rgeen islands of weed could enhance biodiversity and efficiency of predators.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Species richness
  • Shanon index
  • Anthocorid bugs
  • Ecosystem

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