رفتار کاوشگری کفـشدوزک شـکارگر (Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae و زنبـور پارازیتوئید Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hymenoptera; Braconidae)، دشمنان طبیعی شته جالیز، در شرایط تاریکی و روشنایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، فارسی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران

2 گروه حشره شناسی، دانشگاه ایالتی کانزاس، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی، هایز، ایالات متحده آمریکا

چکیده

نور به عنوان یک عامل محیطی، ویژگی‌های زیستی، فیزیولوژیکی و رفتاری حشرات را تحت تأثیر قرار می­دهد. در مطالعه حاضر میزان شکارگری کفشدوزکHippodamia variegata  و همچنین میزان پارازیتیسم زنبور Lysiphlebus fabarum  روی شته جالیز Aphis gossypii، در شرایط تاریکی و روشنایی ارزیابی شد. بدین منظور جمعیت هم‌سن از مراحل مختلف رشدی کفشدوزک و زنبورهای ماده تهیه و به­ طور جداگانه به پوره‌های سن سوم میزبان (20 پوره برای لارو سن دوم کفشدوزک و زنبور ماده؛ 30 پوره برای سایر مراحل رشدی کفشدوزک) مستقر روی یک برگ خیار، معرفی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که فعالیت شکارگری لاروهای سن دوم متأثر از شرایط روشنایی و تاریکی نبود، در حالی‌که تعداد شته‌های کُشته شده (مجموع شته‌های نیمه و کامل خورده شده) توسط لاروهای سن چهارم، افراد بالغ نر و ماده کفشدوزک در شرایط روشنایی به­ طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از تاریکی بود. در شرایط تاریکی، نرخ مصرف ناتمام طعمه (نسبت شته‌های ‌نیمه ‌خورده شده به شته‌های کُشته ‌شده) در لاروهای سن چهارم به­ طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از لاروهای سن دوم بود. افراد بالغ ماده در شرایط تاریکی در مقایسه با روشنایی به­طور معنی‌داری نسبت بیشتری از طعمه‌ها را به صورت ناتمام مصرف نمودند. همچنین در هر دو شرایط نوری، این نرخ در افراد بالغ ماده بیشتر از نر بود. زنبورهای پارازیتوئید در شرایط تاریکی شته‌های کمتری را پارازیته کردند. با توجه به کارایی به نسبت بالای کفشدوزک در شرایط تاریکی، می‌توان گفت که کاربرد همزمان زنبور و کفشدوزک، امکان فعالیت توأم آن­ها را طی روز فراهم نموده و از سوی دیگر روند کاهش جمعیت آفت با فعالیت شکارگر در طول شب نیز ادامه می­یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Foraging behavior of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), as the natural enemies of Aphis gossypii, under light and dark conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Mohammadi 1
  • Arash Rasekh 1
  • Mehdi Esfandiari 1
  • J.P. Michaud 2
  • Farhan Kocheili 1
1 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Agricultural Research Center – Hays, USA
چکیده [English]

Light, as an environmental factor, affects the biology, physiology and behavior of insects. In this study, the feeding behavior of Hippodamia variegata and parasitism rate of Lysiphlebus fabarum were studied under light and dark conditions. Synchronous cohorts of different growth stages of H. variegata and female parasitoid wasps were produced and then they were singly introduced into experimental arena containing third instar nymphs of Aphis gossypii (20 nymphs for second instar larvae and female wasp; 30 nymphs for other growth stages of ladybird beetle) on a cucumber leaf. The results revealed that, although light did not influence foraging behavior of second instar larvae of the ladybird beetle, the number of killed aphids was significantly higher for fourth instar larvae by female and male adults of H. variegata during foraging in the light condition in comparison with the dark condition. The ratio of partial prey consumption (No. of partially consumed aphids to No. of aphids killed) was significantly greater in fourth instar larvae than in second instar larvae in the dark condition. Female adults displayed significantly more partial consumption of prey in the dark relative to the light condition. Moreover, in both light and dark phases, this ratio was higher in female adults than in males. The results revealed that female wasps parasitized fewer A. gossypii nymphs in the dark than in the light. Based on the acceptable performance of H. variegata in the dark condition, it can be said that in addition to the benefits of simultaneous application of the parasitoid wasp and the ladybird beetle during the day, aphid population decline continues at night.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aphis gossypii
  • biological control
  • cucumber
  • ratio of partial prey consumption

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