تاثیر سطوح نیتروژن و ارقام گوجه فرنگی بر کارایی انگلی زنبور (Trichogramma principium (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae روی تخم کرم میوه خوار (Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، فارسی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاه پزشکی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

2 موسسه تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی کشور،سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

3 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، ایران

چکیده

کارایی یک دشمن طبیعی، به عنوان رکن ضروری در موفقیت هر برنامه مهار زیستی وابسته به عوامل متعددی از جمله میزبان می­باشد. اعتقاد بر این است که کیفیت میزبانهای گیاه­خوار دشمنان طبیعی بیشتر بستگی به شرایط تغذیه گیاهی و تفاوت­های ژنتیکی ارقام دارد. در این تحقیق، ظرفیت انگلی زنبور انگل­ واره Trichogramma principium روی تخم Helicoverpa armigera در شش رقم گوجه فرنگی شامل کینگ استون، ریوگرند، ارلی­اوربان، رد­استون، سوپر­استرین­ B و پرایموارلی با چهار سطح نیتروژن (0، 1/2، 0/3، 9/3 گرم در هر گلدان، به صورت اوره 46% در پنج تکرار مطالعه شد. آزمایش­ ها در شرایط اتاقک رشد در دمای 1±25 درجه سیلسیوس و رطوبت نسبی 5±60 درصد و دوره نوری 16:8 ساعت روشنایی به تاریکی انجام شد. بالاترین و پایین ­ترین نرخ خالص انگلی (C0) به‌ترتیب 59/2±39/23 و 00/1±42/13 میزبان / انگل­ واره پرورش یافته روی رقم سوپراسترین­B با بالاترین سطح نیتروژن و ارلی­اوربان شاهد بود.  نرخ تبدیل جمعیت میزبان به نتاج انگل ­واره (Qp) در تمامی تیمار­ها نزدیک به 1 (C0 R0) بود. کمترین و بیشترین نرخ کرانمند انگلی (ω) به عنوان شاخص میزان کارایی این دشمن طبیعی برابر 1525/0 و 3164/0 میزبان/ انگل­ واره/ بر روز روی تخم میزبان­های پرورش یافته روی ارقام ارلی­اوربان با پایین ­ترین سطح نیتروژن و سوپراسترین B با بالاترین سطح نیتروژن بود. در مجموع بیشترین مقدار انگلی در میزبان­های پرورش یافته روی ارقام سوپراسترین­B و کینگ­استون با بالاترین میزان نیتروژن بود. بر اساس این نتایج، ظرفیت انگلی زنبور T. principium روی تخم کرم میوه‌خوار گوجه­ فرنگی با سطح کود نیتروژن همبستگی مثبت داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of nitrogen level and tomato cultivars on the efficiency of Trichogramma principium (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on the eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fereshteh Salehi 1
  • Jalal Shirazi 2
  • Gholamhossein Gharekhani 1
  • Nahid Vaez 3
1 Plant Protection Dep.Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
2 Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection; Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organi-zation (ARREO), Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Iran
چکیده [English]

The efficiency of natural enemies as the key factor in the success of biological control programs, depends on different elements including the quality of their herbivore hosts. Similarly, it may be influenced by nutritional status and genetic differences of host plants in turn. This study was undertaken to determine the parasitism efficiency of Trichogramma principium (Sugonjaev & Sorokina) on the eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) reared on different nitrogen fertilized tomato plant cultivars. All experiments were established in a growth chamber under 25 ± 1°C temperature, 60 ± 5% RH, 16:8 h. (L:D) conditions. Treatments included six tomato cultivars (Kingston, Riogrand, Earlyurbana, Redston, Superstrain-B and Primoearly) with four N levels (0, 2.1, 3.0, 3.9 g/ pot, Nitrogen as Urea 46%), in 5 replications. The value of the net parasitism rate (C0) of T. principium varied from 13.42±1.00 to 23.39± 2.59 hosts on the eggs of H. armigera reared on En0, and SBn+, respectively. The transformation rate from host population to parasitoid offspring (Qp) on all treatments was close to 1 (C0 R0). The finite parasitism rate (ω) which is used to determine the efficiency of a parasitoid, estimated as 0.1525 (min.) and 0.3164 (max.) hosts parasitoid-1 day-1 on the hosts reared on Earlyurbana and Superstrain-B, respectively. In general, T. principium had higher parasitism capacity on the hosts reared on Superstrain-B, Kingston and Riogrand with highest N levels, which were more suitable for parasitoid. This study showed that parasitism capacity of parasitoid was influenced by the host plant cultivar as well as positively correlated with the host plant nitrogen contenets.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biological control
  • Parasitism capacity
  • Nitrogen fertilization
  • Tri-trophic interactions

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