محاسبه سطح زیان اقتصادی شته یولاف-گندم ) Sitobion avenae (Hom.: Aphididae. روی گندم رقم چمران در اهواز

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران.

2 عضو هیأت علمی مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

خشکسالی سال­های اخیر، باعث افزایش جمعیت شته یولاف-گندم (Sitobion avenae Fab.) شده است. با توجه به افزایش فعالیت دشمنان طبیعی آنها در مزارع غلات، بهترین روش کنترل آن آفت براساس استفاده از سموم انتخابی با کاهش اثرات سوء زیست­محیطی استوار است. بنابراین لزوم تعیین سطحی از تراکم آفت که باعث خسارت اقتصادی می‌شود(EIL)، برای جلوگیری از مصرف بی­رویه سم در اگرواکوسیستم حساس گندم مشهود می‌باشد. از این­رو این پژوهش در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی به­صورت آزمایش کرت­های یک بار خرد شده با دو عامل مراحل نموی و تراکم شته در سه تکرار برروی گندم آبی متوسط رس رقم چمران در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی اهواز طی دو سال زراعی 90-1388 اجرا شد. مراحل نموی (ابتدای، اواسط و اواخر مرحله شیری) به­عنوان عامل اصلی و تراکم شته (شاهد صفر، 10-5، 15-11، 20-16، 25-21، 30-26 و 35-30 شته در هر سنبله) به­عنوان عامل فرعی درنظر گرفته شدند. تمام تیمارها با استفاده از روش توری آستینی و در سه تکرار اجرا شدند. میانگین عملکرد دانه در تیمارهای مختلف تراکم شته با استفاده از آزمون دانکن گروه­بندی و معادله و منحنی خط رگرسیونی بین تعداد شته و وزن دانه در هر بوته محاسبه شد. برای محاسبه  EILشته یولاف-گندم از روش حد سودآوری مبارزه استفاده شد. نتایج سال اول نشان داد که بدون احتساب نقش دشمنان طبیعی سطح زیان اقتصادی (EIL) شته یولاف-گندم در ابتدای، اواسط و اواخر مرحله شیری شدن دانه گندم به­ترتیب 17، 22 و 42 شته و آستانه زیان اقتصادی به همان­ترتیب 12، 17 و 31 شته یولاف-گندم برای هر سنبله محاسبه شد. نتایج سال دوم نشان داد که سطح زیان اقتصادی در ابتدا، اواسط و اواخر مرحله شیری شدن دانه گندم به­ترتیب 9، 18 و 49 شته و آستانه زیان اقتصادی به­همان ترتیب 7، 14 و 37 شته یولاف-گندم برای هر سنبله محاسبه شد. همچنین در سال زراعی 94-1393 سطح زیان اقتصادی در ابتدا، اواسط و اواخر مرحله شیری 8، 16 و 44 شته وآستانه زیان اقتصادی به­همان ترتیب 6، 12 و 33 شته در هر سنبله به­دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of economic injury level of Sitobion avenae (Hom.: Aphididae) on wheat of Chameran variety in Ahwaz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Y. Khajehzadeh 1
  • M. Hasanimoghaddam 2
1 Plant Protection Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources research Center, AREEO, Ahwaze, Iran.
2 Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The drought phenomenon in recent years has increased the oat aphid (Sitobion avenae Fab.) population in khuzestan wheat fields. Considering the existence of different natural enemies of this pest in cereal fields, the best control method would be based on selective pesticide application which is less harmful to environment and natural enemies. Thus determination of pest Economic injury level (EIL) became a necessity to prevent immethodical usage of pesticides in wheat vulnerable agroecosystem. Hence, an experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design based on split plot with two factors and three replications including growing stages and aphid density in Chamran cultivar in agricultural research station of Ahwaz during 2010 to 2011. Growing stages (Early, middle and late of milky stage) and aphid density (0, 5-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30 and 31-35 aphid on spike) were considered as mainplot and subplot, respectively. All treatments applied in a net cage. Averages of yield in different aphid density treatments were grouped by Duncan- multiple range test. Regression equations and curves were obtained between aphid density and seed weight in each spike. Grain threshold method was used to EIL measurement. The results showed that EIL was 17, 22, 42 aphids/spike in early, middle and late of milky stage of wheat with no calculating of natural enemies but ET was 12, 17, 31 aphids/spike in the first year and EIL was 9, 18, 49 aphids/spike and ET was 7, 14, 37 aphids/spike in the second year. Also, EIL was 8, 16, 44 aphids/spike and ET was 6, 12, 33 aphids/spike in 2014-2015, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Economic injury level
  • Sitobion avenae Fab
  • Wheat
  • Ahwaz

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