عنوان مقاله [English]
The drought phenomenon in recent years has increased the oat aphid (Sitobion avenae Fab.) population in khuzestan wheat fields. Considering the existence of different natural enemies of this pest in cereal fields, the best control method would be based on selective pesticide application which is less harmful to environment and natural enemies. Thus determination of pest Economic injury level (EIL) became a necessity to prevent immethodical usage of pesticides in wheat vulnerable agroecosystem. Hence, an experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design based on split plot with two factors and three replications including growing stages and aphid density in Chamran cultivar in agricultural research station of Ahwaz during 2010 to 2011. Growing stages (Early, middle and late of milky stage) and aphid density (0, 5-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30 and 31-35 aphid on spike) were considered as mainplot and subplot, respectively. All treatments applied in a net cage. Averages of yield in different aphid density treatments were grouped by Duncan- multiple range test. Regression equations and curves were obtained between aphid density and seed weight in each spike. Grain threshold method was used to EIL measurement. The results showed that EIL was 17, 22, 42 aphids/spike in early, middle and late of milky stage of wheat with no calculating of natural enemies but ET was 12, 17, 31 aphids/spike in the first year and EIL was 9, 18, 49 aphids/spike and ET was 7, 14, 37 aphids/spike in the second year. Also, EIL was 8, 16, 44 aphids/spike and ET was 6, 12, 33 aphids/spike in 2014-2015, respectively.
Aheer, G. M., Rashid, A. Afzal, M. and Ali, A. (1993)Varietal resistance/susceptibility of wheat to aphids, Sitobion avenae F. and Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis. Sasaki. ) Journal of Agricultural Research 31 (3):307-311
Aheer, G. M., M. M. Munir and A. Ali. (2007). Impact of weather factors on population of wheat aphids at Mandi Baha-ud-Din district. Journal of Agricultural Research 45 (1): 61-66.
Anonymous (1987) Wheat traveling seminar. Pak Agric. Res Council, Islamabad. PP. 31.
Anonymous (2004) Journal of Entomology Society of Iran 6 (24) p. 3.
Ba-Angood, S. A. & Stewart, R. K. (1980a) The effect of insecticide application on cereal aphid infestation and damage to barley in South Western Quebec. Annual of Society Entomology Quebec. 25: 72-76.
Ba-Angood, S. A. & Stewart, R. K. (1980b) Sowing date and cereal aphid infestations damage to barley in south western Quebec. Journal. of Economic Entomology 73: 462-464.
Blackman, R. L. & Eastop, V.F. (1984) Aphids on the world's crops, an identification guide: Johns Wiley and Sons. London, 466 pp.
Campbell, A., Frazer, B. D., Gillbert, N., Gutierrez, A. P. and Mackauer, M. (1974) Temperature reqirements of some aphid and their parasitoids. Journal of Applied Entomology 11: 431-438.
Carter, N., Powell, W., Wright, A. F., Ashby, J. E. (1989) Effectiveness of different insecticides applied at various growth stages to control aphids on winter wheat. Crop Protection 8, 271-276.
Chander, S. Lajpat, R., Pearis, F. B., Aggarwal, P.K. and Naveen K. (2006). Modeling the effect of Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia and weeds in winter wheat as guide to management, Agricultural systems 88: 494-513.
Davatchi, A. (1954) Insect Pests of Cereals in Iran. Univ. Tehran Public. 211 pp.
Dewar, A. M. & Carter, N. (1984) Decision trees to assess the risk of cereal aphid outbreaks in summer in England. Bullten Entomology Research 74: 387-398.
Dutoit, F. (1989b) Components of resistance in three bread wheat lines to Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in South Africa. Journal. of Economic Entomology 82: 1779-1781.
Eastop, V. F. & Hodjat, S. H. (1978) A Checklist of Aphids and their Hosts in Khuzestan. Journal. Of Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz. 5 (10-24).
Entwistle J. C. & Dixon, A. F. G. (1987). Short term forecasting of wheat yield caused by the grain aphid in summer. Annual of Applied Biology 111: 489-508.
Farahbakhsh, Gh. (1961) A Checklist of Economically Important Insects & other Enemies of Plants & Agricultural Products in Iran. Plant organization press. 153 pp.
Fereres, A., Gutierrez, C., DelEstal, P., Castanera, P. (1988) Impact of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), on the yield of wheat plants subjected to water deficits. Environment Entomology. 17 (3): 596-602
Geza, K. (2000)Aphid flight and change in abundance of winter wheat pests. Archives of Phytopathology. and Plant Protection 33 (4):361-373.
Hodjat, S. H. & A. Fard, P. (1986)The wheat aphids and the other aphids of Iran. Journal. of Plant Pests and Diseases Institue of Iran. 54 (1, 2) 83: 65-109.
Honek, A. (1991) Environment stress, plant quality and abundance of cereal aphids on winter wheat. Journal of Applied Entomology, 112, 65-70.
Johnston, R. L. & Bishop, G. W. (1987) Economic injury levels and economic thresholds for cereal aphids (Hom.: Aphididae) on spring planted wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology 80: 478-482.
Kieckhefer, R. W. & Gellner, (1992) Yield losses in winter wheat caused by low-density cereal aphid populations. Agronomy Journal 84:180.
Kuroli, G. and Nemeth, I. (1987) Aphid species occurring on winter wheat, their damage and results of control experiments. Növényvédelem. 23(9):385-394 [RAE (A) 76(8):5068, 1988].
Larsson, H. (2005 a) A crop loss model and dynamic thresholds for the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), in winter wheat in southern Sweden. Crop Protection 24: 397-405.
Larsson, H. (2005 b) Aphids and thrips: The Dynamics and Bio-Economics of Cereal Pests. Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agricultural Science Department of Crop Science Alnarp. 33 p.
Nava-Camberos, U., Riley, D. G., Harris, M. K. (2001) Density-yield relationship and economic injury levels for Bemisia argentiifolia in cantaloupe in Texas. Journal of Economic Entomology 94 (1), 180-189.
Oakley, J. N., Walters, K. F. A. (1994) A field evaluation of different criteria for determining the need to treat winter wheat against the grain aphid S. avenae and the rosegrain aphid M. dirhodum. Annual Applied Biology 124 (2), 195-211.
Pedigo, L. P. (1989) Entomology and pest management, Macmillan, New York, P:234-236.
Pedigo, L. P. (1994) Economic Thresholds and Economic Injury Levels. Annual Review Entomology 61,339-345.Pedigo, L. P. (2013) Economic Thresholds and Economic Injury Levels. In: E. B. Radcliffe,W. D. Hutchison & R. E. Cancelado [eds.], Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook, URL: http://ipmworld.umn.edu, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN.
Pedigo, L. Hutchins, S. & Higley L. G. (1986) Economic Injury Levels in Theory and Practice . Annual. Review Entomology 31: 341-71.
Peterson, R. K. D. & Higley L. G. (1986) Economic Injury Levels. PP.228-230 in Pimentel, D. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of pest management. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Rabbing, R., & Mantel, W. P. (1981)Monitoring for cereal aphids in winter wheat. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 87, 25-29.
Rezaei, N. Mosegh, M. S. & Hodjat, S. H. (2006) The wheat and barely aphids and their natural enemies population dynamics in Khuzestan Province. Journal. of Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz. 29 (2): 127-137
Rezwani A. (2001)Key to the aphids (Hom.: Aphidinea) in Iran.Agricultural Research, Education and Extension organization, Tehran. 305 PP.
Safarzoda, S. Bahlai, C. A. Fox, A.F. Landis, D. A. (2014) The role of natural enemy foraging guilds in controlling cereal aphids in Michigan wheat. PLOS ONE 9 (12): 1-17
Stern, V. M. (1966)Significance of the economic threshold in integrated pest control. Proceedings of the FAO Symposium on the Integrated Pest Control, Rome, 41-56.
Stern, V. M., Smith, R. F., Bosch, R. V. D. & Hagen, K. S. (1959)The integrated conrol concept. Hilgardia 29, 81-101.
Stone, J. D. & Pedigo, L. P. (1972)Development and economic injury level of the green clover worm on soybean in Iowa.Journal of Economic Entomology 65,197-202.
Vickerman, G. P. & Wratten, S. D. (1979) The biology and pest status of cereal aphids in Erurop. Review Bulltin Entomology. Res. 69: 1-23.
Watt, A. D., Vickerman, G. P. & Wratten, S. D. (1984) The effect of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), on winter wheat in England: an analysis of the economics of control practice and forecasting systems. Crop Protection 209-222.
Wratten, S. D., Lee, G., Stevens, D. J. (1979) Duration of cereal aphid populations and the effects on wheat yield and quality, Proceedings of the 1979 British Crop Protection Conference.Pests and Diseases, vol. 1. pp. 1-8.