بررسی پایداری سطح تعادل جمعیت بید کلم ((Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) با استفاده از روش آشفتگی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار اکولوژی جمعیت، بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع‌طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی (تات)، اصفهان، ایران.

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد حشره‌شناسی کشاورزی و استادیار حشره‌شناسی، گروه حشره‌شناسی و بیماریهای گیاهی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران.

چکیده

امروزه درک عمیق بیولوژی جمعیت برای به­کارگیری شیوه­های اکولوژیک مدیریت آفات ضروری می­باشد. در پژوهش حاضر، رفتار جمعیت بید کلم پس از بروز یک آشفتگی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بدین­منظور، یک آزمایش طولانی مدت با سه تیمار (بدون آشفتگی، آشفتگی با کاهش جمعیت و آشفتگی با افزایش جمعیت) انجام شد. به­طوری­که آزمایش در هر تیمار با 10 جفت حشره کامل در قفس­های تهویه­دار شروع و تا 10 نسل کامل در شرایط محیطی ثابت استاندارد ادامه یافت. پس از طی پنج نسل، آشفتگی اعمال و هر تیمار 10 بار تکرار شد. در طول آزمایش غذای حشرات کامل و لاروها توسط محلول عسل (20%) و بوته­های کلم چینی تأمین و شمارش حشرات کامل به­صورت هفتگی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که جمعیت­های بید کلم درصورت عدم آشفتگی در سطوح تعادل به­صورت پایدار دوام خواهند داشت. درحالی­که، آشفتگی با کاهش جمعیت در اکثر موارد باعث جابه­جایی سطح تعادل جمعیت به تراکم پایین­تری شد که می­توان امیدوار بود با ایجاد یک یا چند بار آشفتگی، با استفاده از راهبردهای پایداری چون رهاسازی دشمنان طبیعی یا پاشش حشره­کش­های میکروبی، سطح تعادل جمعیت را به زیر آستانه زیان اقتصادی پایین آورد. آشفتگی با افزایش جمعیت، در نیمی از موارد باعث ناپایداری جمعیت با شیب منفی شد که می­تواند باعث انقراض جمعیت شود و می­توان از آن در مدیریت پایدار این آفت بهره جست. علل و پیامدهای یافته­های به­دست آمده در ارتباط با پارامترهای زیستی بید کلم، ایجاد رقابت بر سر منابع و اثرهای اکولوژیک آن بر رفتار جمعیت بحث شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studies on the stability of population equilibrium of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae)) using perturbation method

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Karimzadeh 1
  • Z. Kazemzadeh 2
  • H. Ghajariyeh Najaribashi 2
1 Associate Professor in Population Ecology, Department of Plant Protection, Isfahan Research and Education Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Isfahan, Iran.
2 MSc in Agricultural Entomology and Assistant Professor in Entomology, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture (Abureihan campus), University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, a basic understanding of population biology is necessary to establish ecological strategies of pest management. In the present study, the population behavior of the diamondback moth after a perturbation was examined. For this purpose, a long-term experiment with three treatments (control, a perturbation using density reduction and a perturbation using density increase) was performed. The experiment was started with 10 pairs of adult moths in ventilated cages under the standard constant environment. The experiment was continued for 10 generations. After five generations, the perturbation was applied and each treatment was replicated 10 times. Adults and larvae were fed with honey solution (20%) and Chinese cabbage, respectively. The population trend and stability were monitored by weekly census counts of live adults, and the data used as a measure of abundance for the population dynamics. The results showed that the populations of the diamondback moth persisted at equilibrial levels when there was no perturbation. On the contrary, when the populations were perturbed using density reduction, the population equilibrium was shifted to a lower level; in this situation perturbations using sustainable strategies, such as the release of natural enemies or the application of microbial insecticides, may set the equilibrium beneath economic injury threshold. While, a perturbation using density increase can cause instability of population equilibrium toward a decreasing trend that may drive the population to extinction. The causes and effects of the findings in relation with the moth life history, resource competition and its ecological consequences on the population behavior were discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ecological strategies
  • pest management
  • long term
  • equilibrium shift
  • instability

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