عنوان مقاله [English]
Olfactory experiments were performed to study the predation behavior of Orius niger Wolff (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) on the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in presence or absence of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.). The experiments were carried out with six day old female bugs by recording the predator direction towards each of the Y-tube olfactometer arms and through three dependent replicates consisted of 15 replicates each. The predatory bug showed a significant preference towards the odors related to infested cucumber leaves by T. urticae in the absence of fungus and when the predator received odors related to T. urticae infested leaves v.s. B.bassiana fungus treated, spider mite infested leaves (72 hours). There was no significant difference in the predator olfactory experiment when the alternative arms consisted of treated v.s. untreated spider mite infested cucumber leaves (0, 24 and 48 hours after treatment). The results showed the capacity of the predatory bug to recognize the patches infected by B.bassiana fungus and successfully avoiding it.
Baverstock, J., Clark, S. J., Alderson, P. G. & Pell, J. K. (2009) Intraguild interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis and an aphid predator and parasitoid at the population scale. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 102, 167-172.
Carnero, A., Pena, M. A., Perez-Padron, F., Garrid, W. C. & Hernandez Garcia, M. (1993) Bionomics of Orius albidipennis and Orius limbatus. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 16, 27-30.
Charnley, A. K. (2003) Fungal pathogens of insects: cuticle degrading enzymes and toxins. Advances in Botanical Research 40, 241-321.
Chouvenc, T., Su, N. Y. & Elliott, M. L. (2008) Interaction between the subterranean termite Reticulitermes ﬂavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in foraging arenas. Journal of Economic Entomology 101, 885-893.
Cory, J. S. & Hoover, K. (2006) Plant-mediated effects in insectpathogen interactions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21, 278-286.
Dicke, M. & Sabelis, M. W. (1988) Infochemical terminology: based on cost-benefit analysis rather than origin of compounds?. Functional Ecology 2, 131-139.
Dicke, M. & van Loon, J. J. A. (2000) Multitrophic effects of herbirore induced Plant Volatiles in an erolutionary context. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 17, 237-249.
Faldt, J., Jonsell, M., Nordlander, G. & Borg-Karlson, A. K. (1999) Volatiles of bracket fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Fomes fomentarius and their functions as insect attractants. Journal of Chemical Eeology 25, 567-590.
Goettel, M. S., Hajek, A. E., Siegel, J. P. & Evans, H. C.(2001) Safety of fungal biocontrol agents. pp. 347-375 in Butt, T. M., Jackson, C.W. & Magan, N. (Eds), Fungal as biocontrol agents. 401 pp. CAB International, Wallingford, London, UK.
Hazan, A., Gerson ,U. & Tahori, A. S. (1974) Spider mite webbing1. The production of webbing under various environmental conditions. Acarologia 16 (1), 68-84.
Inglis, G. D., Goettel, M. S., Butt, T. M. & Strasser, H. (2001) Use of hyphomycetous fungi for managing insect pests. pp. 27-69 in Butt, T. M., Jackson, C.& Magan, N. (Eds) Fungi as biocontrol agents. 401 pp. CABI, International, Wallingford, London, UK.
Legaspi, J. C., Poprawski, T. J. & Legaspi, B. C. (2000) Laboratory and field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana against sugarcane stalk borers (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Journal of Economic Entomology 93 (1), 54-59.
Madadi, H. (1999) Investigation on identification the species of genus Orius Wolf(Het.: Anthocoridae) in cucumber fields in Karaj and possiblity of their rearing. Msc., thesis Tehran Univ. Karaj, Iran. PP. 112. [In Persian].
Maniania, N., Bugeme, D., Wekesa, V., Delalibera, I. & Knapp, M. (2008) Role of entomopathogenic fungi in the control of Tetranychus evansi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), pests of horticultural crops. Experimental and Applied Acarology46, 259-274.
Meyling, N. V., Pell, J. K. & Eilenberg, J. (2006) Dispersal of Beauveria bassiana by the activity of nettle insects predator. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 93, 121-126.
Nordlund, D. A. (1981) Semiochemicals: A Review of the Terminology. pp. 13-28in Nordlund, D. A. R. L. & Lewis W. J. (Eds). Semiochemicals: Their Role in Pest Management, Wiley, New York.
Ormond, E. (2007) The overwintering interactions of the seven spot ladybird (Coccinella septempunctata) and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.Ph. D. thesis, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge.
Price, P. W., Bouton, C. E., Gross, P., McPheron, B. A., Thompson, J. N. & Weis, A. E. (1980) Interactions among three trophic levels: Influencce of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Entomology 11, 41-65.
Romeis, J. & Zebitz, C. P. W. (1997) Searching behaviour of Encarsia formosa as mediated by colour and honeydew. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 82, 299-309.
Roy, H. E., Steinkraus, D., Eilenberg, E., Hajek, A. & Pell, J. K. (2006) Bizarre interactions and endgames: Entomopathogenic fungi and their arthropod hosts. Annual review of Entomology 51, 331-367.