The effect of choice and no-choice access on host (Aphis fabae) instars preference, in different ages and sizes of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

نویسندگان

1 فارغ التحصیل کارشناسی ارشد حشره شناسی کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 دانشیار گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 دانشیار گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

چگونگی تاثیر پارازیتوئیدها روی تغییرات جمعیت میزبان، تحت تاثیر ترجیح سن پورگی میزبان قرار دارد. این طرح ترجیح ثابت نبوده و همراه با فراوانی نسبی و میزان در دسترس بودن، تفاوت در شدت رفتارهای دفاعی و همچنین اثرات مادری زنبور کاوشگر تغییر می‌یابد. در این مطالعه ترجیح سن پورگی میزبان در استرین ماده‌زای زنبور پارازیتوئید Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) در ارتباط با کارایی نتاج روی سنین اول، دوم و چهارم پورگی شته‌  Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) در شرایط انتخابی و غیرانتخابی مطالعه شد. علاوه بر این اثرات مادری (سن و اندازه) روی ارتباطات کاراییترجیح نتاج مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج، زنبورهای پرورش یافته روی پوره سن اول، صرف نظر از سن و اندازه‌ی مادر، کوچکتر بودند و طول دوره‌ی رشدی طولانی‌تری داشتند، نسبت به زنبورهایی که در پوره سن دوم یا چهارم پرورش یافته بودند. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که وقتی که زنبورها در شرایط غیرانتخابی به سنین مختلف میزبان دسترسی داشتند، ، صرف نظر از سن و اندازه، ترجیحی به سن پورگی خاصی نشان ندادند. با این اوصاف، در شرایط انتخابی، در هر دو کلاس سنی  و اندازه‌ی زنبورهای مادر، تعداد مومیایی‌ها با افزایش سن پورگی میزبان کاهش یافت، که نشان دهنده‌ عدم ارتباط بین ترجیح سن پورگی و کارایی نتاج می‌باشد. بر اساس نتایج، در پرورش انبوه زنبور پارازیتوئید L. fabarum، به منظور افزایش کارایی نتاج، بهتر خواهد بود که در شرایط انتخابی حداقل تراکم از پوره‌های سن اول در اختیار زنبورهای کاوشگر قرار گیرد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of choice and no-choice access on host (Aphis fabae) instars preference, in different ages and sizes of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pegah Najafpour 1
  • Arash Rasekh 2
  • Mahdi Esfandiyari 3
1 M.Sc. Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
3 Associate Professor of Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The influence of parasitoids on population dynamics is affected by host instar preference. The preference pattern of host instars is not fixed and is modified by the availability and relative abundance of host instars, intensity of defensive behaviors in a particular instar, and also maternal effects of the female forager. In this study, host instar preference of the thelytokous strain of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) was studied in relation to progeny performance in choice and no-choice experiments, using the first, second, and fourth host instars of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as hosts. In addition, we investigated whether the maternal effects (age and size) influenced preference-performance associations. Based on the results, offsprings emerging from hosts that were parasitized as the first instar stage were smaller and took longer to develop than offsprings emerging from hosts that were parasitized as the second and fourth instars, irrespective of the age and size of their mothers. The results also showed that when females were offered different host instars under no-choice access, there was no preference for a specific instar, irrespective of the size and age of the female. However, in a choice situation, for the both age and size classes of the parasitoid mother, the number of mummies declined with increasing host instar, suggesting that host instar preference does not reflect offspring performance. For mass rearing of L. fabarum, it would be better if female foragers be introduced to lower density of first instar, under choice situation because of increasing offspring performance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aphididae
  • Hemiptera
  • Fitness
  • Maternal effect
  • progeny performance

Alphen, van J.J.M. & Vet, L.E.M. (1986) An evolutionary approach to host finding and selection. pp. 23-61 in Waage, J. K. & Greaythead, D. (Eds) Insect Parasitoids.. 513 pp. Academic Press.

Ameri, M., Rasekh, A. & Allahyari, H. (2012) Effect of different nymphal stages of Aphis fabae Scopoli on some biological features of thelytokous population of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall). ­Journal of Plant Protection 35(4), 83-94. [In Persian with English summary].

Ameri, M., Rasekh, A., Michaud, J.P. & Allahyari, H. (2013) Morphometric indicators for quality assessment in the aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Braconidae: Aphidiinae). European Journal of Entomology 110, 519-525.

Ameri, M., Rasekh, A. & Michaud, J.P. (2014) Body size affects host defensive behavior and progeny fitness in a parasitoid wasp, Lysiphlebus fabarum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 150, 259-268.

Bellows, T.S. (1985) Effects of host age and host availability on developmental period, adult size, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity in Lariophagus distinguendus Forster (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Researches in Population Ecology 27, 55-64.

Chau, A. & Mackauer, M. (2000) Host-instar selection in the aphid parasitoid Monoctonus paulensis (Hym.: Braconidae: Aphidiinae): a preference for small pea aphids. European Journal of Entomology 97, 347-353.

Chow, A. & Mackauer, M. (1991) Patterns of host selection by four species (Hymenoptera) parasitoids: influence of host switching. Ecological Entomology 16, 403-410.

Cloutier, C. & Mackauer, M. (1979) The effect of parasitism by Aphidius smithi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on the food budget of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 57, 1605-1611.

Craig, T.P. & Itami, J.K. (2008) Evolution of preference and performance relationships. pp. 20-28 in Tilmon, K. J. (Eds) Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation. The Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects.  325 pp. University of California Press.

Fritz, R.S., Crabb, B.A. & Hochwender, C.G. (2000) Preference and performance of a gall-inducing sawfly: a test of the plant vigor hypothesis. Oikos 89, 555-563.

Gerling, D., Roitberg, B.D. & Mackauer, M. (1990) Instar specific defence of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum: influence on oviposition success of the parasite Aphelinus asychis (Hym.: Aphelinidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 3, 501-514.

Godfray, H.C.J. (1994) Parasitoids: Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology. 473 pp. Princeton University Press.

Gripenberg, S., Mayhew, P.J., Parnell, M. & Roslin, T. (2010) A meta-analysis of preference–performance relationships in phytophagous insects. Ecology Letters 13, 383-393. 

Harvey, J.A. (2005) Factors affecting the evolution of development strategies in parasitoid wasps: the importance of functional constraints and incorporating complexity. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 117, 1-13.

Harvey, J.A., Bezemer, T.M., Elzinga, J.A & Strand, M.R. (2004) Development of the solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis demolitor: host quality does not increase with host age and size. Ecological Entomology 29, 35-43.

Harvey, J.A., Harvey, I.F. & Thompson, D.J. (1994) Flexible larval growth allows use of a range of host sizes by a parasitoid wasp. Ecology 75, 1420-1428.

Harvey, J.A. & Strand, M.R. (2002) The developmental strategies of endoparasitoid wasps vary with host feeding ecology. Ecology 83, 2439-2451.

Hofsvang, T. & Hagvar, E.B. (1986) Oviposition behavior of Ephedrus cerasicola parasiting different instars of its aphid host. Entomophaga 31(3), 261-267.

Janz, N., Bergstrom, A. & Sjogren, A. (2005) The role of nectar sources for oviposition decisions of the common blue butterfly Polyommatus icarus. Oikos 109, 535-538.

Kant, R., Sandanayaka, W.R.M., He, X.Z. & Wang, Q. (2008) Effect of host age on searching and oviposition behaviour of Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). New Zealand Plant Protection 61, 355-361.

Kouamé, K.L. & Mackauer, M. (1991) Influence of aphid size, age and behaviour on host choice by the parasitoid wasp Ephedrus californicus: a test of host-size models. Oecologia 88, 197-203.

Losey, J.E. & Denno, R.F. (1998) The escape response of pea aphids to foliar foraging predators: factors affecting dropping behaviour. Ecological Entomology 23, 53-61.

Mackauer, M. (1983) Determination of parasite preference by choice tests: The Aphidius smithi (Hym.: Aphidiidae) pea aphid (Hom.: Aphididae) model. Annals of Entomological Society of America 76, 250-261. 

Mackauer, M. (1986) Growth and developmental interactions in some aphids and their hymenopteran parasites. Journal of Insect Physiology 32, 275-280.

Mackauer, M. & Sequeira, R. (1993) Patterns of development in insect parasites. Parasites and Pathogens of Insects. pp. 1-20 in Beckage, N. E., Thompson, S. N.  & Federici, B. A. (Eds). The Effect of Superparasitism on Development of the Solitary Parasitoid. 355 pp. Academic Press.

Mangel, M. (1987) Oviposition site selection and clutch size in insects. Journal of Mathematical Biology 25, 1-22.

Mahmoudi, M., Sahragard, A. & Jalali Sendi, J. (2010) Foraging efficiency of Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) parasitizing the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), under laboratory conditions. Journal of Asia-pacific Entomology 3(2), 111-116. 

Michaud, J.P. & Mackauer, M. (1995) Oviposition behavior of Monoctonus paulensis (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae): factors influencing reproductive allocation to hosts and host patches. Annals of Entomological Society of America 88, 220-226.

Mossadegh, M.S., Stary, P. & Salehipour, H. (2011) Aphid Parasitoids in a Dry Lowland Area of Khuzestan, Iran (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae). Asian Journal of Biological Sciences 4, 175-181.

Mousseau, T.A. & Dingle, H. (1991) Maternal effects in insect life histories. Annual Review of Entomology 36, 511-534.

Rakhshani, E., Talebi, A.A., Manzari, S., Rezwani, A. Rakhshani, H. (2006) An investigation on alfalfa aphids and their parasitoids in different parts of Iran, with a key to the parasitoids (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 25, 1-14.

Rasekh ,A., Kharazi-Pakdel, A., Michaud, J.P., Allahyari, H. & Rakhshani, E. (2011) Report of a thelytokous population of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 30, 83-84.

Rasekh, A., Michaud, J.P., Allahyari, H. & Sabahi, Q. (2010a) The foraging behavior of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall), a thelytokous parasitoid of the black bean aphid in Iran. Journal of Insect Behavior 23, 165-179.

Rasekh, A., Michaud, J.P., Kharazi-Pakdel, A. & Allahyari, H. (2010b) Ant mimicry by an aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Journal of Insect Science 10, 126. 

Roitberg, B.O., Sircom, J., Roitberg, C.A., van Alphen, J.J.M. & Mangel, M. (1993) Life expectancy and reproduction. Nature 364: 108.

Rosenheim, J.A. & Hongkham, D. (1996) Clutch size in an obligately siblicidal parasitoid wasp. Animal Behaviour 51, 841-852.

Rossiter, M.C. (1991) Environmentally-Based Maternal Effects: A Hidden Force in Insect Population Dynamics? Oecologia 87(2), 288-294.

Scheirs, J. & De Bruyn, L. (2002) Integrating optimal foraging and optimal oviposition theory in plant–insect research. Oikos 96, 187-191.

Sequeira, R. & Mackauer, M. (1987) Host instar preference of the aphid parasite Praon pequorum (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Entomologia Generalis 12, 259-265.

Sequeira, R. & Mackauer, M. (1992a) Nutritional ecology of an insect host-parasitoid association: the pea aphid-Aphidius ervi system. Ecology 73, 183-189.

Sequeira, R. & Mackauer, M. (1992b). Covariance of adult size and development time in the parasitoid wasp Aphidius ervi in relation to the size of its host, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Evolutionary Ecology 6, 34-44.

Singh, R. & sinha, T.B. (1982) Bionomic of Trioxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma an aphidid parasitoid of Aphis craccivora. 13: Host selection by the parasitoid. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie 93, 64-75.

SPSS. (1998) SPSS 8.0 for Windows. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.

Stary, P. (1986) Specificity of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the black bean aphid Aphis fabae complex in agroecosystems. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslov 83, 24-29.

Thompson, J.N. (1988) Evolutionary ecology of the relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring in phytophagous insects. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 47, 3-14.

Underwood, D.L.A. (1994) Intraspecific variability in host plant quality and ovipositional preferences in Eucheira socialis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Ecological Entomology 19, 245-256.

Valladares, G. & Lawton, J.H. (1991) Host plant selection in the holly leaf-miner: does mother know best? Journal of Animal Ecology 60, 227-240.

Volkl, W. & Mackauer, M. (1996) "Sacking" the host: oviposition behavior of a parasitoid wasp, Dyscritulus pluniceps (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 9, 975-980.

Wajnberg, E. (2006) Time allocation strategies in insect parasitoids: from ultimate predictions to proximate behavioral mechanisms. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 60, 589-611.

Wheeler, D. (1996) The role of nourishment in oogenesis. Annual Review of Entomology 41, 407-431.

Weisser, W.W. (1994) Age-dependent foraging behavior and host-instar preference of the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus cardui. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 70, 1-10.