اثرات فرمولاسیون اسانس نانوکپسوله شده گیاه زیره سبز Cuminum cyminum روی کنه قرمز مرکبات Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

نویسندگان

1 گروه حشره‌شناسی کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 بخش تحقیقات آفت‌کش‌ها، موسسه تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی کشور، تهران

3 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مازندران، ساری

چکیده

کنه قرمز مرکبات Panonychus citri McGregor ، از آفات مهم مرکبات می­باشد و انتشار جهانی دارد. امروزه به علت مشکلات ناشی از آفت­کش‌های شیمیایی مانند بروز مقاومت و خطرات زیست محیطی، استفاده از اسانس­های گیاهی مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. با این حال، حلالیت کم اسانس­ها در آب، اکسیداسیون و ناپایداری در حضور نور، رطوبت و حرارت از عمده­ترین موانع استفاده از اسانس­ها می­باشد. یکی از راهکارهای عمده در راستای اصلاح خواص فیزیکی اسانس­ها و کاربردی کردن مصرف آن در کنترل آفات کشاورزی، فرموله کردن آنها می­باشد. در این راستا اسانس گیاه زیره سبز Cuminum cyminum L. از طریق پلیمریزاسیون همزمان به روش امولسیونی روغن در آب (O/W) به صورت نانوکپسول فرموله شد. سپس خواص کنه­کشی نانوکپسول حاوی اسانس روی کنه قرمز مرکبات مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در آزمایش سمیت تماسی مشخص شد LC50 نانوکپسول اسانس روی کنه قرمز مرکبات در مدت 24 ساعت برابر با 17/743 پی­پی­ام می‌باشد. فرمولاسیون نانوکپسول اسانس علاوه بر ایجاد مرگ و میر ایجاد شده، تعداد کل تخم‌های گذاشته شده را نیز به طور معنی­داری کاهش داد. در ادامه اثر بازدارندگی فرمولاسیون نانوکپسول اسانس در غلظت­های 100، 300، 500 و 700 پی­پی­ام مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. نتایج نشان­داد که به جز غلظت 100 پی پی ام، در غلظت­های بالاتر اثرات بازدارندگی دارد. همچنین فرمولاسیون نانوکپسول اسانس اثر بازدارندگی تخم­ریزی داشت و تعداد تخم­های گذاشته­شده به ازای هر فرد ماده کاهش معنی داری نسبت به شاهد داشت. بنابر­این می­توان گفت تکنولوژی پیشرفته فرمولاسیون همانند نانوکپسوله سازی این امکان را به آفت‌کش­های گیاهی می­دهد تا بتوانند جایگزین آفت‌کش­های شیمیایی شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of nanoencapsulated formulation of Cuminum cyminum essential oil on Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Bashiri 1
  • S. Mohammadipour 1
  • M. Negahban 2
  • Sh. Mafi Pashakolaei 3
1 Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Pesticide Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran
3 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Mazandaran, Sari, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Citrus red mite, Panonychus citri McGregor is one of the most important pests of citrus orchards in the world. Due to excessive use of chemical pesticides and development of resistance plus their increasing environmental hazards, the use of essential oils has been highly studied. But the low solubility of essential oils in water, oxidation, in addition to their instability in presence of light, humidity and high temperature has diminished their application. Formulation technology is one of the main strategies that can modify the physical properties and the viability of the essential oils in agricultural pest management programs. In this research, the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. was encapsulated by in situ polymerization of oil/water emulsion in nano scale and then the effects of nanoencapsulated essential oil (NEO) were analyzed against P. citri. The results showed that LC50 of NEO's contact toxicity was 743.17 ppm over 24 hours. NEO also affected mortality and decreased oviposition rate in P. citri. NEO had deterrence capacity at 300, 500 and 700 ppm. Moreover, NOE had oviposition deterrence, lowering the number of eggs per female compared to the control. Our finding suggests that high-tech formulations including nanoencapsulation technology can be used as botanical pesticides and as alternatives to chemical pesticides.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Citrus red mite
  • botanical pesticides
  • pest management
  • Formulation
  • nanocapsul
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