شکارگری درون‌رسته‌ای بین کفشدوزک Hippodamia variegata (Col.: Coccinellidae)و زنبور پارازیتویید Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hym.: Braconidae)

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد حشره شناسی، گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 دانشیار حشره شناسی، آزمایشگاه اکولوژی جنگل، دانشکده تحصیلات تکمیلی کشاورزی، دانشگاه کیوتو ، 8502-606 ژاپن

چکیده

شکارگری  درون‌رسته‌ای یعنی کشتن و خوردن گونه‌هایی که به علت استفاده از منابع مشابه و یا محدود، رقبای بالقوه محسوب می‌شوند. در این تحقیق شکارگری درون‌رسته‌ای بین کفشدوزک Hippodamia variegata Goeze و زنبور پارازیتویید (Marshall)Lysiphlebus fabarum  با تغذیه از شته جالیز Aphis gossypii Glover  روی گیاه خیار بررسی شد. به این منظور ترجیح طعمه‌ای لارو سن سوم و ماده‌ها‌ی کفشدوزک بین  شته‌های بالغ سالم و پارازیته در شرایط دسترسی انتخابی و همچنین در آزمایش بویایی‌سنجی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در آزمایش‌ها، از بریدن یکی از شاخک‌های شته‌ها برای تشخیص بین شته‌های سالم و پارازیته استفاده شد. آزمایش­ها در شرایط دمایی C˚1±22، رطوبت نسبی  5±65% و دوره نوری 8:16 (روشنایی: تاریکی) انجام شد. بر اساس نتایج پیش آزمایش، بریدن شاخک در شته‌های سالم و پارازیته، بر ترجیح غذایی کفشدوزک تأثیر معنی‌داری نداشت. در آزمایش دسترسی انتخابی، تغذیه کفشدوزک ماده از شته‌های پارازیته نشده نسبت به شته‌های پارازیته (24 و 72 ساعت قبل) با اختلاف معنی‌داری بیشتر بود (به‌ترتیب 04/0= , P18،1=df  , 15/2=t  و 001/0< , P18،1=df  , 35/6= t)، اما لارو سن سوم کفشدوزک میان شته‌های سالم و شته‌هایی که 72 ساعت از پارازیتیسم آنها گذشته بود، تفاوتی قائل نشد (56/0= , P18،1=df  , 58/0=t). بر اساس نتایج آزمایش‌های بویایی‌سنجی، کفشدوزک‌های ماده در انتخاب شته‌های سالم از پارازیته تفاوت معنی‌داری نشان ندادند (21/0= , P 19،1=df  , 60/1= 2χ). ترجیح شته‌های سالم در مقایسه با شته‌های پارازیته توسط حشرات ماده‌ی H. variegata می‌تواند یک ویژگی برای کاربرد همزمان این دو عامل کنترل بیولوژیک (H. variegata و L. fabarum) باشد

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Intraguild predation by Hippodamia variegata (Col.: Coccinellidae) on the parasitoid wasp, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hym.: Braconidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Toosi 1
  • Arash Rasekh 2
  • Naoya Osawa 3
1 M.Sc. student in Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Laboratory of Forest Ecology Graduate School of Agriculture Kyoto University, 606-8502 Japan
چکیده [English]

Intraguild predation is defined as killing and eating another predator species as potential competitors that depends upon the same or limited resources. In this study, intraguild predation between the ladybird Hippodamia variegata Goeze and the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) was investigated in association with cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, on cucumber plants. Host preference for healthy or previously parasitized aphids in third instar larvae and adult females of H. variegata was studied in a choice access situation as well as in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. We cut an antenna of each experimental aphid to reliably distinguish  the parasitized aphids from healthy ones. All experiments were performed at 22±1°C, 60%–70% RH, and a 16:8 (L:D) photoperiod. Based on the pre-test results, cutting the antenna of aphids, did not significantly affect the host preference of adults or third instar larvae of ladybirds. In a choice access test, female ladybirds significantly preferred healthy aphids to previously parasitized ones (24 and 72 hours: t =2.15, df =1,18, P =0.04 and t =6.35, df =1,18, P <0.001, respectively), but third instar larvae behaved differently  (t =0.58, df =1,18, P =0.56). According to olfactometer test results, female ladybirds preferred neither healthy aphids nor parasitized ones (χ2 =1.6, df =1,19, P =0.21). It is concluded that preference for healthy aphids over parasitized ones by adult female of H. variegata  facilitates the simultaneous application of the both biocontrol agents, H. variegata and L. fabarum

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aphis fabae
  • Aphis gossypii
  • cutted antenna aphid
  • host preference
  • Y-tube olfactometer

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