یادگیری بویایی و دوام حافظه در زنبور Venturia canescens (Hym.: Ichneumonidae)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، فارسی

نویسندگان

گروه گیاهپزشکی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

یادگیری نشانه‌های جدید در تمامی شاخه‌های زیستی جانوران از موجودات تک‌سلولی تا پستانداران به صورت‌های مختلف رخ می‌دهد. حشرات برخلاف جثه کوچک و طول عمر کوتاه، توانایی خارق العاده‌ای را در یادگیری، به خاطر سپردن و
بکارگیری نشانه­های مختلف محیطی مرتبط با حضور میزبان و منابع غذایی دارا می‌باشند. این توانایی از عوامل موثر در
افزایش کارایی و قدرت جستجوگری دشمنان‌طبیعی همچون زنبورهای پارازیتوئید مانند زنبور Venturia canescens می‌باشد. زنبور V. canescens از مهمترین پارازیتوئیدهای شب­پره­های خانواده Pyralidae  می‌باشد. در این پژوهش توانایی یادگیری بویایی زنبور V. canescens نسبت به دو رایحه بویایی نعناع و لیمو با استفاده از دستگاه بویایی­سنج دو راهه‌ی Y شکل بررسی شد. نتایج  نشان داد که زنبور V. canescens نسبت به رایحه‌های بویایی نعناع و لیمو ترجیح ذاتی نداشت. اما بعد از شرطی­سازی زنبورهای ماده، بین پاسخ‌های بویایی به رایحه بویایی شرطی (رایحه نعناع) و غیرشرطی (رایحه لیمو) تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود داشت. همچنین دوام حافظه زنبور V. canescens تا 27 ساعت بعد از شرطی‌سازی و در غیاب تجربه برخورد با رایحه فراگرفته شده، ادامه یافت. شناخت توانایی یادگیری و دوام حافظه در دشمنان طبیعی از جمله زنبور V. canescensمی‌تواند باعث کاربرد موفق‌تر پارازیتوییدها در برنامه‌های کنترل بیولوژیک آفات گیاهی گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Olfactory learning and memory retention in Venturia canescens (Hym.: Ichneumonidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Kishani Farahani
  • Yasaman Moghaddasi
  • Pouria Abrun
  • Ahmad Ashouri
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Learning new cues in all branches of biological organisms, ranging from unicellular organisms to mammals, occurs in different ways. In spite of their small size and short life span, insects have an extraordinary ability to learn, memorize and use environmental cues associated with the hosts and their food sources. Having the ability to learn and recalling the cues associated with the presence of prey / host is a key factor that increases the performance and foraging capacity of biocontrol agents including the ichneumonid parasitoid wasp Venturia canescens which is one of the most important parasitoids of the family Pyralidae in the world. In this research the learning ability of V. canescens in presence of peppermint and lemon odors was investigated by Y- Olfactometer. Results showed that the wasp had no significant preference towards peppermint or lemon, but after conditioning the female wasp, a meaningful difference was observed between her response to the conditioned odor (peppermint) and unconditioned odors (lemon). Her memory's lasting period continued for 27 hours after conditioning in the absence of the learned cues. Recognizing the learning ability and memory retention of the biocontrol agent V. canescens helps improve the efficiency of its application in biological control programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • memory retention
  • performance
  • experience
  • searching capacity
  • olfactory learning

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