عنوان مقاله [English]
Melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, is an important pest of cucumber in greenhouses. In this research the possibility of using induced resistance for reducing population growth rate of the pest has been investigated. The life history parameters of aphid were determined in a growth chamber at 25±2° C, 60 ± 5% R.H and 14:10 L D conditionsin a completely random design in a split plot experiment. The main factor was two cucumber cultivars of Royal and Storm and the subplot consisted of five different pre-infestation periods (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days pre-infestation with five melon aphid/plant). At the end of each pre-infestation period, the aphids were removed and the plants kept aphid-free for 48 h. The life history and population growth parameters of aphid were determined through 40 replications. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the treatments in aspect of the nymph growth duration, duration of reproduction of adult aphids and the longevity of the adult aphids. Furthermore, among the treatments R0, r, λ and DT had significant differences in both cultivars, but there was no significant difference among the treatments in terms of generation time (T). The lowest and highest R0 in Royal (19.27 and 49.65 nymph/female/generation)and the lowest and highest r(0.311and 0.480 /day) were observed on 6 and 0 days pre-infestation period treatments, respectively. The lowest and the highest R0 in Storm (13/25 and 44/63 nymph/female/generation)and the lowest and highest r(0.273and 0.463 /day) were observed on 6 and 0 days pre-infestation period treatments, respectively. WE conclude that the pre-infestation of the cucumber plants with A. gossypii can induce resistance in cucumber within 6-8 days leading to population growth rate reduction in the melon aphid.
Agrawal, A. A., Tuzun, S. & Bent, E. (1999) Induced plant defenses against pathogenes and herbivores: Biochemistry, ecology and agriculture. APS Press, Saint Paul390 pp.
Akca, I., Ayvaz, T., Yazici, E., Smith, C. L. & Chi, H. (2015) Demography and population projection of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): with additional comments on life table research criteria. Journal of Economic Entomology, 108, 1466– 1478.
Baldwin, I. T. (1994) Chemical changes rapidly induced by folivory. inBernays E.A. (Ed) Insect-plant interactions, vol. 5. pp 1– 23.CRC, Boca Raton.
Bentur J. S. &Kalode, M. B. (1996) Hypersensitive reaction and induced resistance in rice against the Asian rice gall midge Orseoliaoryzae. EntomologiaExperimentalisetApplicata 78, 77– 81.
Bramstedt, F. (1938) Der nachweis der blutlausunanfalligkeit der apfelsorten auf histologischergrundlage. Z.PflanzenkrankPflanzenschutz 48, 480– 488.
Brown, G. C., Nurdin, F., Rodriguez, J. G. &Hilderand, D. F. (1991) Inducible resistance of soybean (var. Williams) to two spotted spider mite (Tetranychusurticae Koch). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 64, 388– 393.
Capinera, J. L. (2007) Melon aphid or cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphidiae). University of Florida Agricultural. Extension Servic Bulletin 173, 1– 5.
Carey, J. R. (2001) Insect biodemography. Annual Review of Entomology 46, 79- 110.
Chi, H. & Su, H.Y. (2006) Age-stage, two-sex life tables of Aphidiusgifuensis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Myzuspersicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with mathematical proof of the relationship between female fecundity and the net reproductive rate. Environmental Entomology 35, 10– 21.
Chi, H. )2015( Timing-MSChart: AComputer Program for the PopulationProjection Based on Age-Stage, Two-sexLife Table.(http://18.104.22.168/Ecology/Download/TIMING-MSChart.rar).
Hardee, D. D. (1993) Resistance in aphid and whiteflies: principle and keys to management. 20–23 pp. in Proceedings of Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conference. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis.
Harrison, S. &Karban, R.(1986) Behavioral response of spider mites (Tetranychusurticae) to induced resistance of cotton plants. EcologicalEntomology 11, 181– 188.
Herron, G., Powis, K. &Rophail, J. (2000)Baseline studies and preliminary resistance survey of Australian populations of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hom.: Aphidiae). Australian Journal of Entomology 39, 33– 38.
Kaloshian, I., Kinsey, M. G., Williamson, V. M. & Ullman, D. E. (2000)Mi-mediated resistance against the potato aphid, Macrosiphumeuphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), limits sieve element ingestion. Environmental Entomology 29, 690– 695.
Karban, R. & Baldwin, I. T. (1997) Induced resistance to herbivory. Chicago University Press, Chicago.IL. USA, 330 pp.
Karban, R., Adamchak, R. &Schnathorst, W. C. (1987) Induced resistance and interspecific competition between spider mites and a vascular wilt fungus.Science 235, 678– 680.
Kersting, U., Star, S. &Uygun, N. (1999) Effect of temperature on development rate and fecundity of apterousAphis gossypii Glover (Hom.:Aphididae) reared on Gossypiumhirsutum L. Journal Applied Entomology 123, 23– 27.
Kogan, M. & Paxton, J. (1983) Natural inducers of plant resistance to insects. in Hedin P.A. (Ed) Plant resistance to insects. Series 208, 153– 171. American Chemical Society Symposium. American Chemical Society. Washington, DC.
Mayer, R. T., Inbar, M., McKenzie, C. L., Shatters, R. &Borowicz, V. (2002) Multitrophic interactions of the silverleaf whitefly, host plants, competing herbivores, and phytopathogens. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 51, 151– 169.
Omer, A. D., Thaler, J. S., Granett, J. &Karban, R. (2000) Jasmonic acid induced resistance in grapevines to a root and leaf feeder, Journal of Economic Entomology 93, 840– 845.
Reddy, G. V. P. & Chi, H. (2015) Demographic comparison of sweetpotato weevil reared on a major host, Ipomoea batatas, and an alternative host, I. triloba. Scientific Reports 5: 11871.
Schmeltz, E. A., Alborn, H. T., Banchio, E. &Tumlinson J. H. (2003) Quantitaive relationships between induced jasmonicacidlevels and volatile emission in Zea mays during Spodopteraexiguaherbivory. Planta216, 665– 673.
Shelton, A. L. (2004) Variation in chemical defenses of plants may improve the effectiveness of defense. Evolutionary Ecologycal Research 6,709– 26.
Stout, M. J. &Duffey, S. S. (1996) Characterization of induced resistance in tomato plants. EntomologiaExperimentalisetApplicata 79, 273– 283.
Stout, M. J., Thaler, J. S. &Thomma, B. P. H. J. (2006) Plant mediated interactions between pathogenic microorganisms and herbivorous arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 51, 663– 689.
Stout, M. J., Workman, K. V. &Duffey, S. S. (1996a) Identity, spatial distribution and variability of induced chemical responses in tomato plants. EntomologiaExperimentalisetApplicata 79, 255– 271.
Thompson, G. A. &Goggin, F. L. (2006) Transcriptomics and functional genomics of plant defense induction by phloem-feeding insects. Journal of Experimental Botany 57, 755– 766.
Underwood, N. (1999) The influence of plant and herbivore characteristics on the interactions between induced resistance and herbivore population dynamics. American Naturalist 153, 282– 294.
Underwood, N. (2000) Density dependence in induced plant resistance to herbivore damage: threshold, strength and genetic variation. Oikos 89, 295– 300.
Wool, D. & Hales, D. F. (1996) Previous infestation affects recolonization of cotton by Aphis gossypii: induced resistance or plant damage. Phytoparasitica 24, 39– 48.