عملکرد تولیدمثلی Chouioia cunea Yang (Hym.: Eulophidae) زنبور پارازیتویید پروانه ابریشم‌باف پاییزی Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lep.: Arctiidae)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، انگلیسی

نویسندگان

گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت

چکیده

پروانه ابریشم­باف پاییزی Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) آفت پروانه آفت مهم گیاهان جنگلی باغی و محصولات زراعی در استان گیلان است. در این پژوهش، عملکرد تولید مثلی زنبورChouioia cunea Yang  (Hym.: Eulophidae)، پارازیتوئید تجمعی شفیره H. cunea در دمای°C 1±24، رطوبت %5±70 و دوره نوری 14:10 ساعت روشنایی، به تاریکی بررسی شد. شفیره‌های میزبان در معرض تراکم­های 1، 2، 4، 8، 12 و 16 حشرات کامل پارازیتویید تازه خارج شده قرار داده شدند. زنبورهای پارازیتویید داخل ظروف پتری (1x 10 سانتی­متر) به مدت 24 ساعت در تماس با شفیره­های میزبان باقی ماندند. این آزمایش تا پایان عمر تمام زنبورهای پارازیتویید ادامه یافت. نتایج نشان داد که تراکم پارازیتویید در تولید نتاج موثر بود، به­طوری­که بالاترین تراکم منجر به تولید کم­ترین نتاج شد (29/6±06/179). تراکم پارازیتویید روی نسبت جنسی تاثیری نداشت، اما سن پارازیتویید بر نسبت جنسی تاثیر داشت و بالاترین نسبت جنسی در نتاج تولید شده توسط زنبورهای یک روزه مشاهده شد (♀001/0±92/0). بالاترین نرخ پارازیتیسم در تراکم 4 عدد زنبور پارازیتویید به­دست آمد (33/33%). متوسط درصد پارازیتیسم زنبورهای ماده با طول عمر 1، 2 و 3 روزه به ترتیب 21%، 13% و 9% تعیین شد (05/ .(p <. بیشینه تعداد نتاج تولید شده به ازای هر ماده در نسبت 4 عدد پارازیتویید به 15 شفیره میزبان به­دست آمد. پارازیتوییدهای ماده 1 تا 3 روز پس از تخم­ریزی زنده ماندند. قدرت جستجوی پارازیتویید با افزایش تراکم آن، از 18/0 به 009/0 بر ساعت کاهش یافت. نرخ بقای نتاج زنبور پارازیتویید
C. cunea از لحاظ آماری در همه تراکم­ها در هر دو جنس نر و ماده دارای تفاوت معنی­دار نبود، اما با افزایش سن پارازیتویید تفاوت آماری مشاهده شد. نتیجه‌گیری شد که تراکم و سن زنبور پارازیتویید   C. cuneaبه‌طور اساسی عملکرد تولیدمثلی آن را تحت تاثیر قرار می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reproductive performance of Chouioia cunea Yang (Hym.: Eulophidae) parasitizing fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lep.: Arctiidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Haleh Fardmasoud
  • Ahad Sahragard
  • Reza Hosseini
Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lep.: Arctiidae), is an important pest of forest and cultivated plants in Guilan Province, Iran. The reproductive performance of Chouioia cunea Yang (Hym.: Eulophidae), a gregarious pupal parasitoid of H. cunea was studied at 24±1°C, 70±5% (RH), and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) hours. The pupal hosts were exposed to 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16 newly emerged adult parasitoids. The parasitoids remained in contact with host pupae for 24 hours in Petri-dishes (10x1 cm) until the death of all parasitoids. The results showed that parasitoid density influenced offspring production, as the higher parasitoid densities resulted in the lowest mean number of offspring per female (179.06± 6.29). The sex ratio was not influenced by parasitoid density, but the age of parasitoid affected sex ratio as a higher sex ratio (0.92±0.001♀) was observed in the progeny produced by younger parents. Rate of parasitism was higher at density of 4 wasps (33.33%). The mean percent parasitism by 1, 2 and 3 day-old female parasitoids were 21, 13 and 9, respectively (P<0.05). Maximum number of offspring produced per female was obtained at host/parasitoid ratio of 15 to 4. The female parasitoids survived 1-3 days after oviposition. The searching efficiency of the parasitoid decreased from 0.18 to 0.009h-1 with increasing its density. The survival rate for C. cunea was not significantly different at all densities of male or females, but a statistical difference was observed with increasing parasitoid age. It was concluded that the performance of C. cunea was mainly affected by its density and age.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • foraging behavior
  • Parasitism
  • Reproduction
  • Hyphantria cunea
  • Chouioia cunea

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