اثر سازگاری سرمایی و سرماسختی سریع روی تحمل سرما و ترکیبات ضد یخ در شته معمولی گندم، Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، انگلیسی

نویسندگان

گروه حشره شناسی کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

حشرات بقای خود را در دماهای زیر صفر با قرار گرفتن به مدت طولانی یا کوتاه در دماهای پایین اما غیرکشنده افزایش می­دهند که به ترتیب سازگاری سرمایی(ACC) و سرماسختی سریع(RCH) نامیده می­شود. در این تحقیق اثر کاهش تدریجی یا سریع دما روی تحمل به سرما در افراد بالغ شته معمولی گندم، (Rondani)­ Schizaphis graminum مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. LT50 (دمایی که موجب مرگ و میر 50 درصد افراد جمعیت می‌شود) با قرار گرفتن در دمای 10 درجه سلسیوس به مدت یک هفته اختلاف معنی‌داری با شاهد (افراد پرورش یافته در دمای 20 درجه سلسیوس) نشان داد. علاوه بر سازگاری تدریجی، افراد بالغ شته S. graminum سرماسختی سریع نیز نشان دادند؛ زمانی­که شته­های پرورش یافته در دمای 20 درجه سلسیوس به طور مستقیم در معرض دماهای زیر صفر به مدت دو ساعت قرار گرفتند LT80 (دمای 80 درصد مرگ و میر) برابر با 6/11- درجه سلسیوس به دست آمد. اما قرار گرفتن در دمای صفر به مدت پنج ساعت قبل از انتقال به دمای 6/11- درجه سلسیوس منجر به ایجاد بیشینه سرماسختی سریع شد، به این معنی که بقا به بیشترین مقدار (73 درصد) رسید. همچنین RCH در اثر سرمادهی افراد بالغ با نرخ‌های کاهش دمایی متفاوت ایجاد شد. به طوری­که بیشترین میزان بقا در اثر سرمادهی بانرخ °C/min05/0 به دست آمد. افزایش قندها و پلی­ال­ها یکی از عوامل موثردر ACC و RCH می­باشند. در این مطالعه ترهالوز و گلوکز در ACC و RCH به میزان قابل توجهی افزایش یافتند که نقش این ترکیبات در افزایش تحمل به سرما در شته S. graminum را نشان می­دهد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of cold acclimation and rapid cold hardiness on cold tolerance and cryoprotectants of the greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Saeidi
  • Saeid Moharramipour
  • Azam Mikani
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tarbiat Modares, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Insects can increase their survival at subzero temperatures, prior to long or short term exposure, to non-lethal cold temperatures by cold acclimation (ACC) or rapid cold hardiness (RCH). In this research, the effect of rapid or gradual decrease in temperatureon cold tolerance of adults of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) was investigated. LT50 (lower lethal temperature for 50% mortality) of aphids acclimated at 10 °C for one week showed no significant differences with control (aphids reared at 20 °C). In addition to the cold acclimation, adults of S. graminum showed RCH response too.When the rearing aphids at 20 °C were transferred directlyto a range of sub-zero temperatures for 2 h, LT80 (lower lethal temperature for 80% mortality) was -11.6 °C, but acclimation at 0 °C for 5 h before transfer to -11.6 °C, induced maximum RCH, led to increase of survival to 73%. RCH was induced by cooling of the insects at 0 °C for different rates.Maximum survival (66%) was achieved by cooling at 0.05 °C/min. Accumulationof sugars and polyols is one of the major mechanismsunderlying ACC and RCH. In this study, trehalose and glucose increased considerably through ACC and RCH treatments, suggesting the role of these compounds in increasing cold tolerance of S. graminum

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Schizaphis graminum
  • cold acclimation
  • rapid cold hardiness
  • Cryoprotectants
  • trehalose

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