عنوان مقاله [English]
Foraging behavior of subterranean termites is strongly influenced by environmental conditions and is related directly to termite damages. The seasonal changes in foraging activity of subterranean
termits can affect the efficacy of baiting method in a management program. The subterranean termite,
Anacanthotermes vagans (Hagen) (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae)is an important urban pest with economic damage in central and southern regions of Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seasonal changes on foraging activity and wood consumption in Yazd over a two-year period
(June 2013 to May 2015). Foraging variations were monitored according to three variables including active stations, foraging population and wood consumption. 85 monitoring and 15 feeding stations monthly inspected. The results showed that foraging activity of A. vagans, is completely seasonal and begins after a quarterly stop in March and was highest from July to August. Comparison of
foraging activity pattern changes with mean of temperature fluctuations and monthly precipitation showed seasonal changes in foraging activity is directly related to temperature. In addition, it appears the sharp decline in winter temperature may reduce the population of colony.
Abensperg, T. M. (1991) Seasonal changes in activity of subterranean termite species
(Isoptera) in Western Australian wheatbelt habitats. Australian Journal of Ecology 16, 331-336.
Absuhama, F. T. & Al Houty, W. A. (1989) Diurnal activity rhythms of the subterranean termite Anacanthotermes vagans (Hagen) under laboratory and field conditions of the Kuwait desert. Biometeorology 33, 12-18.
Arab, A., Costa-Leonardo, A. M., Casarin, F. E., Guaraldo, A. C. & Chaves, R. C. (2005) Foraging activity and demographic patterns of two termite species (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae) living in urban landscapes in southeastern Brazil. European Journal of Entomology 102, 691.
Comelius, M. L. & Osbrink, W. L. A. (2011) Effect of seasonal changes in sopil temperatuer and moistuer on wood consuption and foraging activity of formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotrmitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 104, 1024-1030.
Delaplane, K. S., Saxton, A. M. & La Fage, J. P. (1991) Foraging phenology of the
Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Louisiana. American Midland Naturalist 125, 222-230.
Dibog, L., Eggelton, P. & Forzi, F. (1998) Seasonality of soil termites in a humid tropical forest. Tropical Ecology14, 841-850.
Eger, J. E., Jr., M. D. Lees, P. A. Neese, T. H. Atkinson, E. M. Thoms, M. T. Messenger, J. J. Demark L. C.,Lee, E. L. Vargo, & M. P. Tolley. (2012) Elimination of
subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) colonies using a refined cellulose bait matrix containing noviflumuron when monitored and replenished quarterly. Economic Entomology 105, 533–539.
Evans, T. A. & Gleeson, P. V. (2001) Seasonal and daily activity patterns of subterranean, wood-eating termite foragers. Australian Journal of Zoology 49, 311-321.
Evans, T. A., Forschler, B. T. & Grace, J. K. (2013) Biology of Invasive Termites: A Worldwide Review. Annual Review of Entomology 58, 455-474.
Gambetta,A., Zaffagnini, V., De capua, E. (2000) Use of hexaflumuron against
subterranean termites for protection of historical and artistic structures: experiment
carried out in selected test areas at the church of santa maria della santia in Naples. Cultueral Herritage, 1: 207-216.
Ghayourfar, R. (1991) An investigation on important termites species in Iran and their control. Master of sience thesis, Department of plant protection, Tehran university.
Ghayourfar, R. (2000) Biosystematic study of termite fauna of Iran. Ph.D thesis, Department of plant protection, Tehran university. [In Persian].
Ghayourfar, R., Pourmohammadi, S., Saffar, M. & Hasanabadi L. (2008) Injurios biological agents in historical buildings. 296 pp. Hampa. [In Persian].
Haverty, M. I., LaFage, J. P. & Nutting, W. L. (1974) Seasonal activity and environmental control of foraging of the subterranean termite, Heterotermes aureus (Snyder), in a
desert grassland. Life Sciences 15, 1091-1101.
Haverty, M. I., Getty, G. M., Copren, K. A. & Lewis, V. R. (1999). Seasonal foraging and feeding behavior of Reticulitermes spp. (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in a wildland and a residential location in northern California. Environmental Entomology 28, 1077-1084.
Haverty, M. I., Tabuchi, E., L., Vargo, D. L. & Cox, L. J. (2010) Response of
Reticuliterms hespersus colonies to baiting lufenuron in northern california. Journal of Economic Entomology 103, 770-780.
La Fage, J. P., Haverty, M. I. & Nutting, W. L. (1976) Environmental factors collelated with the foraging behavior of a desert subterranean termite, Gnathamitermes perplexus (Banks) Isoptera: Termitidae. Sociobiology 2, 155-196.
Matthews, R.W.& Matthews J. R. (2010). Insect Behavior, p:514. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York.
Messenger, M. T., & N-Y. Su. (2005) Colony characteristics and seasonal activity of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Louis Armstrong Park, New Orleans, Louisiana. Entomology Science 40, 268–279.
Ripa, R., Luppichini, P., Su, N. Y. & Rust. M. K. (2007) Field evaluation of potential control strategies against the invasive eastern subterranean termite (Isopera:
Rhinotermitidae) in Chile. Journal of Economic Entomology 100, 1391-1399.
Ruan, G., Song, X., Hu, Y., Han, N. & Zhang, D. (2015) Foraging activities of Coptotermes formosanus in subtropical areas in China. Journal of Economic Entomology 108, 701–706.
Rust, M. K. & Su, N. Y. (2012) Managing Social Insects of Urban Importance. Annual
Review of Entomology 57: 355-375.
Santos, M. N., Teixeira, M. L. F. Pereira, M. B. & Menezes, E. B. (2010) Enviromental factors influencing the foraging and feeding behavior of two termite species (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in natural habitats. Sociobiology 55:763-777.
Su, N. Y., Thoms, E. M. Ban, P. M. & Scheffrahn, R. H. (1995) A monitoring-baiting station to detect and eliminate foraging populations of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) near structures. Economic Entomology 88: 932–936.
Su, N. Y. & Schefran R. H. (1998) A review of subterranean termite control practices and prospects for integrated pest management. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 3:1-13.