واکنش تابعی زنبور پارازیتوئید Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) نسبت به تراکم‏ های مختلف پوره‏ های سفیدبالک گلخانه Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) روی سه میزبان گیاهی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، فارسی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان

2 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده ی کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

4 بخش تحقیقات کنترل بیولوژیک، موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تأثیر سه گیاه میزبان خیار، گوجه‏فرنگی و بادمجان روی واکنش تابعی زنبور پارازیتوئید Encarsia formosa نسبت به تراکم‏های مختلف پوره‏های ابتدای سن چهارم سفیدبالک گلخانه Trialeurodes vaporariorum در شرایط آزمایشگاهی (دمای 1±25 درجه‏ی سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5±65 درصد و دوره‏ی نوری 16 ساعت روشنایی و 8 ساعت تاریکی) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. پوره‏های سفیدبالک در تراکم‎های 2، 4، 8، 16، 32 و 48 روی دیسک‏های برگی به مساحت تقریبی 8 تا 10 سانتی‏متر مربع در 12 تکرار در اختیار حشرات ماده‏ی پارازیتوئید قرار گرفت. پس از 24 ساعت پارازیتوئیدها حذف و تعداد پوره‏های پارازیته شده و نیز کشته شده در اثر میزبان‏خواری به تفکیک شمارش و ثبت شد. نتایج رگرسیون لجستیک نشان داد که واکنش تابعی پارازیتوئید برای هر دو نوع فعالیت "پارازیتیسم" و " پارازیتیسم+ میزبان‎خواری" در هر سه گیاه میزبان از نوع دوّم است. برای هر دو فعالیت مورد مطالعه از نظر نرخ حمله بین سه میزبان گیاهی اختلاف معنی‏داری وجود نداشت، اما زمان دستیابی روی گوجه‌فرنگی به‏طور معنی داری از مقادیر محاسبه شده در خیار کوتاه‏تر بود. قدرت جستجوگری زنبور E. formosa در مرحله‏ "پارازیتیسم" در میزبان‏های مذکور به ترتیب 0963/0±2580/0، 1331/0±3895/0 و 1368/0±3283/0 برساعت و زمان دستیابی 0810/0±6870/0، 0399/0±3364/0 و 0692/0±5584/0 ساعت محاسبه شد. بر اساس نتایج به‏دست آمده به‏نظر می‏رسد در شرایط گلخانه‏ای، گوجه‏فرنگی مناسب‏ترین گیاه برای فعالیت‏های پارازیتیسم و میزبان‏خواری زنبور پارازیتوئید E. formosa در کنترل سفیدبالک گلخانه T. vaporariorum باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Functional Response of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) to different densities of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) nymphs on three host plants

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Bagheri 1
  • Mahdi Hassanpour 2
  • ALI Golizadeh 3
  • Shahram Farrokhi 4
1 Plant Protection Research Department, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center
2 Mohaghegh Ardabili University of Ardabil, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Resources.
3 Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mohaghegh Ardabili University of Ardabil, Iran
4 Biological Control Research Department, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The influence of three host plants, cucumber, tomato and eggplant on functional response of Encarsia formosa was investigated at different densities of early fourth nymphal instar of Trialeurodes
vaporariorum
under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L: D) h. Whitefly nymphs were offered to the parasitoids in densities of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 48 on leaf disks (8-10 cm2) in 12 replicates. After 24 hours, the parasitoids were removed and the number of parasitized as well as the killed nymphs by host feeding activity was recorded. Logistic regression results showed a type II functional response for both types of "parasitism" and "parasitism + host feeding" activities in all three host plants. There were no significant differences between attack rates (a) across three host plants, but the handling time (Th) estimated on tomato was significantly shorter than those estimated on cucumber. The attack rate of E. formosa in "parasitism" activity on cucumber, tomato and eggplant was 0.2580±0.0963, 0.3895±0.1331 and 0.3283±0.1368 h-1 and handling time was 0.6870±0.0810, 0.3364±0.0399 and 0.5584±0.0692 h, respectively. Based on the results, it seems that tomato is the most suitable plant for the parasitism and host feeding activities of E. formosa to control of the greenhouse whitefly T. vaporariorum in greenhouse conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • foraging behavior
  • Encarsia formosa
  • greenhouse whitefly
  • biological control

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