سمیت حاد و مزمن اسانس کاکوتی چندساله Ziziphora clinopodioides و آنغوزه Ferula gummosa علیه شب‌پره هندی Plodia interpunctella (Lepidopters: Pyralidae)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، انگلیسی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاه پزشکی، مؤسسه آموزش عالی غیرانتفاعی بهاران، گرگان، ایران

2 گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، مجتمع آموزش عالی شیروان، خراسان شمالی، ایران

چکیده

تشدید نگرانی‌های حاصل از مصرف آفت‌کش‌های شیمیایی باعث شده تا پژوهشگران دنیا به دنبال راه کارهای جدید برای کنترل حشرات آفت باشند. اسانس‌های گیاهی می‌توانند به عنوان یکی از ایمن‌ترین جایگزین‌های آفتکش‌های شیمیایی در نظر گرفته ‌شوند. در پژوهش حاضر، سمیت کشندگی و زیرکشندگی اسانس کاکوتی چندساله و آنغوزه روی شب‌پره هندی مطالعه شد. نتایج زیست‌سنجی‌ها نشان داد که مقادیر برآوردشده LC50 اسانس کاکوتی و آنغوزه علیه تخم‌های یک‌روزه به ترتیب 98/96 و 82/49 میکرولیتر بر لیتر هوا و روی تخم-های چهارروزه به ترتیب 86/40 و 91/38 میکرولیتر بر لیتر هوا بود. مقادیر LC50 اسانس کاکوتی و آنغوزه روی لاروهای سن اول به ترتیب 12/10 و 49/7 میکرولیتر بر لیتر هوا و روی لاروهای سن پنجم به ترتیب 11/34 و 66/12 میکرولیتر بر لیتر هوا برآورد شد. همچنین، اسانس کاکوتی با LC50 معادل 77/25 میکرولیتر بر لیتر هوا در مقایسه با اسانس آنغوزه با LC50 معادل 72/28 میکرولیتر بر لیتر هوا از سمیت بیشتری علیه حشرات کامل این شب‌پره برخوردار است. بر اساس میزان LT50‌ برآوردشده، میزان دوام اسانس کاکوتی و آنغوزه علیه حشرات بالغ به ترتیب 31/6 و 56/7 روز بود. افزایش غلظت اسانس‌ها منجر به افزایش معنی‌دار میزان بازدارندگی تخم-ریزی شد. همچنین، نتایج آزمایش‌های خون‌شناسی نشان داد که با افزایش غلظت اسانس و زمان اسانس‌دهی تعداد کل سلول‌های خونی لاروهای یک روزه سن پنجم به طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافت. به‌طور کلی، نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که اسانس کاکوتی و آنغوزه از سمیت تنفسی قابل توجهی علیه شب‌پره هندی برخوردار هستند. همچنین میزان حساسیت مراحل مختلف رشد و نمو این حشره به اسانس‌های مورد آزمایش، اختلاف معنی‌داری با یکدیگر دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Acute and chronic toxicity of Ziziphora clinopodioides and Ferula gummosa essential oils against Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yeganeh Sokuti 1
  • Vahid Ghasemi 2
1 Department of Plant Protection, Baharan Institute of Higher Education, Gorgan, Iran
2 Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Higher Education Complex of Shirvan, North Khorasan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Growing concerns of chemical pesticides lead the researchers around the world to find new avenues of insect pest control. Plant essential oils could be considered as one of the ecofriendly alternative for synthetic pesticides. In the present research, lethal and sublethal toxicity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. and Ferula gummosa L. oils were studied against Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Results of bioassays showed that the estimated LC50 values of Z. clinopodioides and F. gummosa oils were 96.98 and 49.82 µl/l air against one-day-old eggs and 40.68 and 38.91 µl/l air for four-day-old eggs, respectively. LC50 values of Z. clinopodioides and F. gummosa oils were 10.12 and 7.49 µl/l air on 1st instar larvae and 34.11 and 12.66 µl/l air on 5th instar larvae, respectively. Moreover, Z. clinopodioides oil (LC50 = 25.77 µl/l air) was significantly more toxic than F. gummosa oil (LC50 = 28.72 µl/l air) to the adult moths.  Based on the estimated LT50 values, it was determined that persistency of Z. clinopodioides and F. gummosa oils were 6.31 and 7.56 days, respectively. Increasing the oils concentration resulted in a significant increase in oviposition deterrenc. Also, hematology assays indicated that total hemocyte population of one-day-old 5th instar larvae was decreased as the oils concentration and exposure time increased. Collectively, results of the present study demonstrated the potent fumigant toxicity of Z. clinopodioides and F. gummosa oils against P. interpunctella. Also, tests on different growth and developmental stages of the studied moth showed clearly differential susceptibility levels of this pest against the oils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • essential oil
  • Bioassay
  • Oviposition deterrence
  • Hematology assay

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