تأثیر دما روی پراسنجه های جدول زندگی (Aphidius matricariae (Hym.: Braconidae، پارازیتـــــــوئید مهم شته کاهو، (Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hem.: Aphididae

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، انگلیسی

نویسندگان

گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

تأثیر دما روی پراسنجه­ های جدول زیستی پارازیتوئید Aphidius matricariae Haliday، روی شتة کاهو Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosely، در 5 دمای 15، 20، 22، 25 و 1±27 درجة­­ سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5±65 درصد و دوره نوری 16 ساعت روشنایی و 8 ساعت تاریکی بررسی شد. پراسنجه­ های جدول زیستی بر اساس روش جدول زندگی سن- مرحله رشدی، دو جنسی برآورد شدند. علاوه بر این، به ­منظور برآورد واریانس، میانگین و خطای معیار پراسنجه ­های جمعیت از روش بوت استرپ استفاده شد. تمام پراسنجه­های برآورد شده به­ مقدار قابل ملاحظه­ ای تحت تأثیر دما قرار گرفتند. در دمای 27 درجة­ سلسیوس، پوره­های N. ribisnigri نتوانستند بر روی برگ ­ها مستقر شوند و بقا داشته باشند. بنابراین هیچ­­گونه مومیایی تشکیل نشد. افزایش دما سبب کاهش طول دوره رشدی پیش از بلوغ پارازیتوئید از 21/21 روز (15 درجة سلسیوس) به 19/11 روز (25 درجة­ سلسیوس) شد. طول دوره تخمریزی به ترتیب در دماهای 15، 20، 22 و 25 درجة­­ سلسیوس 12/0±21/15، 10/0±47/9، 05/0±91/5 و 09/0±6/5 روز بود. به­طور مشابه، در دماهای ذکر شده، تعداد مومیایی­ها به­ طور میانگین 6/12±74/249، 8/12±72/192، 2/6±15/105 و 0/7 ±3/102 شمارش شدند. بیشترین نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت (r) و بیشترین نرخ متناهی افزایش جمعیت (λ) به­ترتیب 251/0 و 285/1 (روز-1) در دمای 20 درجة­ سلسیوس به­دست آمد. اگرچه در میزان پراسنجه­های نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت و نرخ متناهی افزایش جمعیت دماهای 20، 22 و 25 درجة­ سلسیوس، اختلاف معنی­داری مشاهده نشد. همچنین بیشترین نرخ خالص تولیدمثل (R0) 06/123 (نتاج/ فرد) و کوتاه‌ترین طول دوره یک نسل جمعیت (T) (98/13 روز) به­ ترتیب در دماهای 15 و 25 درجة سلسیوس مشاهده شد. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده، به نظر می­رسد، دامنة دمایی 20-25 درجة­ سلسیوس به عنوان دمای مناسبی به منظور کنترل زیستی شته کاهو با استفاده از زنبور A. matricariae باشد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Temperature-dependent life table parameters of Aphidius matricariae (Hym.: Braconidae), an important parasitoid of the currant lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hem.: Aphididae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Afrooz Farsi
  • Farhan Kocheili
  • Mohammad Saeed Mossadegh
  • Arash Rasekh
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University
چکیده [English]

The effects of temperature on demographic parameters of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius matricariae (Haliday), on lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosely, were studied at five constant temperatures, 15, 20, 22, 25 and 27 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D h. The life table parameters were estimated using age-stage, two-sex life table procedure. Moreover, the bootstrap method was used for estimating variance, mean and standard error of the population growth parameters, at studied temperatures. All estimated parameters were considerably affected by temperature. Accordingly, nymphs of N. ribisnigri could not settle and survive on the leaves at 27°C. Thus, mummies were not formed. Developmental time of the parasitoid wasp decreased with increasing temperature from 21.21 days at 15°C to 11.19 days at 25°C. The oviposition periods were 15.21±0.12, 9.47±0.10, 5.91±0.05 and 5.6±0.09 days at the temperatures of 15, 20, 22 and 25°C. Similarly, average number of mummies was 249.74±12.6, 192.72±12.8, 105.15±6.2 and 102.3±7.0, at the mentioned temperatures, respectively. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were estimated to be 0.251 and 1.285 (d–1) at 20°C, respectively. However, there was no significant difference among the estimated values regarding intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase at the temperatures of 20, 22 and 25°C. The highest value of net reproductive rate (R0) was 123.06 offspring/individual) at 15°C and the shortest mean generation time (T) was 13.98 (day) at 25°C. According to the obtained results, the temperatures 20-25°C, can be considered as optimal temperature range for the biological control of the currant lettuce aphid by using A. matricariae.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aphidius matricariae
  • Nasonovia ribisnigri
  • demography
  • survival
  • temperature

Akca, I., Ayvaz, T., Yazici, E., Smith, C. L. & Chi, H. (2015) Demography and population projection of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): with additional comments on life table research criteria. Journal of Economic Entomology 108, 1466-1478.

Bagheri, S., Tavosi, M. & Dehghani, A. (2008) Introduction of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Hom.: Aphididae) as the most important lettuce aphid in south of Khuzestan province and study on the effect of cultivation date and lettuce cultivars on its population. Proceedings of 18th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Hamedan, Iran, 79-80.

Blackman, R. L. & Eastop, V. F. (2000) Aphids on the World crops: An Identification and Information Guide. 2nd ed. 476 pp. Wiley, Ltd., Chichester, United Kingdom.

Bugg, R. L., Colfer, R. G., Chaney, W. E., Smith, H. A. & Cannon, J. (2008) Flower flies (Syrphidae) and other biological control agents for aphids in vegetable crops. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources 8285, 1-25.

Chi, H. (1988) Life–table analysis incorporation both sexes and variable development rate among individual. Environmental Entomology 17(1), 26-34.

Chi H. (2013) TWOSEX-MSChart: A computer program for the age-stage, two-sex life table analysis. Available from: http://140.120.197.173/Ecology/Download/TwosexMSChart. rar).

Chi, H. & Liu, H. (1985) Two new methods for the study of insect population ecology. Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica 24, 224-240.

Chi, H. & Su, H. Y. (2006) Age–stage, two–sex life tables of Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its host Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with mathematical proof of the relationship between female fecundity and the net reproductive rate. Environmental Entomology 35, 10-21.

Diaz, B. M. & Fereres, A. (2005) Life table and population parameters of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) at different constant temperatures. Environmental Entomology 34(3), 527-534.

Diaz, B. M., Muniz, M., Barrios, L. & Fereres, A. (2007) Temperature thresholds and thermal requirements for development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 36(4), 681-688.

Davis, R. M.,Subbarao, K. V., Raid, R. N. & Kurtz, E. A. (1997) Compendium of lettuce diseases. 240 pp. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.

Ebrahimi M, Sahragard A, Talaei-Hassanloui R, Kavousi A. & Chi, H. (2013) The Life Table and parasitism rate of Diadegma insulare (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) reared on larvae of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), with special reference to the variable sex ratio of the offspring and comparison of Jackknife and Bootstrap Techniques. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 106, 280-287.

Erfon, B. & Tibshirani, R. J. (1993) An introduction to the bootstrap. 444 pp. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Fagan, L. L., McLachlan, A. C., Till, M. & Walker, M. K. (2010) Synergy between chemical and biological control in the IPM of currant-lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) in Canterbury, New Zealand. Bulletin of Entomological Research 100, 217-223.

Farsi, A., Kocheili, F., Mossadegh, M. S., Rasekh, A. & Tavoosi, M. (2014) Natural enemies of the currant lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their populationfluctuations in Ahwaz, Iran. Journal of Crop Protection 3(4), 487-497.

Fisher, R. A. (1930) The genetical theory of natural selection. 2nd ed. 287 pp. Dover, New York.

Giri, M. K., Pass, B. C., Yeargan, K. V. & Parr, J. C. (1982) Behavior, net reproduction,  longevity, and mummy-stage survival of Aphidius matricariae (Hym.: Aphidiidae). Entomophaga 27, 147-153.

Goodman, D. (1982) Optimal life histories, optimal notation and the value of reproductive value. The American Naturalist 119, 803–823.

Huang, Y. B. & Chi, H. (2012) Life tables of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae): with an invalidation of the jackknife technique. Journal of Applied Entomology 64 (1), 1-9.

Jervis, M. A. & Copland, M. J. W. (1996) The life cycle. pp. 63-161 in Jervis, M. A. & Kidd, N. A. C. (Eds)Insect natural enemies: Practical approaches to their study and evaluation. Chapman & Hall, London.

Kift, N. B., Mead, A., Reynolds, K., Sime, S., Barber, M. D., Denholm, I.  & Tatchell, G. M. (2004) The impact of insecticide resistance in the currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on pest management in lettuce. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 6, 295–309.

Liu, Y. B. (2004) Distribution and population development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) in iceberg lettuce. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(3), 883-890.

MacKenzie, J. R. (1986) Improved insect pest management of crisp head lettuce grown in S. W. British Columbia. MSc Thesis, Simon Fraser University, 150 pp.

MacKenzie, J. R. & Vernon, R. S. (1988) Sampling for distribution of the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera:Aphididae), in fields and within heads. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 85, 10-14.

Morales, I., Diaz, B. M., Mendoza, A. H. D., Nebreda, M. & Fereres, A. (2013) The development of an economic threshold for Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce in central Spain. Journal of Economic Entomology 106(2), 891-898.

Nebreda, M., Michelena, J. M. & Fereres, A. (2005) Seasonal abundance of aphid species on lettuce crops in central Spain and identification of their main parasitoids. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 112(4), 405-415.

Palumbo, J. C. (2000) Seasonal abundance and control of the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri on head lettuce in Arizona. Available from: http://arizona.openrepository.com /arizona/handle/10150/220018.

Portaghi, E., Shirvani, A. & Rashki, M. (2016) Effect of temperature on biological parameters of Aphidius matricariae, the Aphis fabae parasitoid. Animal Biology 66(3-4), 120-131.

Reddy, G. V. P. & Chi, H. (2015) Demographic comparison of sweet potato weevil reared on a major host, Ipomoea batatas, and an alternative host, I. triloba. Scientific Reports 5, 11871.

Reed, H. C., Reed, D. K. & Elliot, N. C. (1992) Comparative life table statistics of Diaeretiella rapae and Aphidius matricariae on the Russian wheat aphid. Southwestern Entomologist 17(5), 307-312.

Rezvani, A. (2001) Identify key aphids in Iran. 304 pp. Agriculture Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran.

Shahrokhi, S., Shojai, M., Rezvani, A., Ostovan, H. & Abdollahi, G. A. (2004) Investigation on biology and comparison of fertility life table parameters of Aphidius matricariae Haliday on host aphid Schizaphis graminum (Rondani). Proceeding of the 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, University of Tabriz, Iran, 37-38. 

Shrestha, G. & Enkegaard, A. (2013) The green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea:Preference between lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri, and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Journal of Insect Science 13, 85-94.

Shrestha, G., Enkegaard, A. & Steenberg, T. (2013) Susceptibility of Nasonovia ribisnigri developmental stages to Beauveria bassiana and the effect of infection on adult fecundity. International Symposium Ecology of Aphidophaga, Belgrade, Serbia, 79-80.

Shrestha, G., Skovgard, H. & Enkegaard, A. (2014) Parasitization of commercially available parasitoid species against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 43(6), 1535-1541.

Shijko, E. S. (1989) Rearing and applications of the peach aphid parasites, Aphidius matricariae Haliday (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae). Acta Entomologica Fennica 53, 53-56.

Smith, H. A. & Chaney, W. E. (2007) A survey of syrphid predators of Nasonovia ribisnigri inorganic lettuce on the central coast of California. Journal of Economic Entomology 100(1), 39-48.

Stary, P., Sampaio, M. V. & Bueno, V. H. P. (2007) Aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) and their associations related to biological control in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 51(1), 107-118.

Stufkens, M. A. W. & Teulon, D. A. J. (2003) Distribution, host range and flight pattern of the lettuce aphid in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection 56, 27-32.

Tahriri Adabi, S., Talebi, A. A., Fathipour, Y. & Zamani, A. A. (2010) Life history and demographic parameters of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its parasitoid, Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on four sugar beet cultivars. Acta Enetomologica Serbica 15(1), 61-73.

Zamani, A. A., Talebi, A. A., Fathipour, Y. & Baniameri, V. (2007) Effect of temperature on life history of Aphidius colemani and Aphidius matricariae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), two parasitoids of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 36(2), 263-271.

Yu, J. Z., Chi, H. & Chen, B. H. (2013) Comparison of the life tables and predation rate of Harmonia dimidiata (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) fed on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) at different temperatures. Biological Control 64, 1-9.

van Schelt, J., Hoogerbrugge, H., Becker, N., Messelink, G. & Bolckmans, K. (2011) Comparing Aphidius colemani and Aphidius matricariae on Myzus persicae ssp. nicotianae in sweet pepper. Integrated control in protected crops, temperate climate 68, 169-172.