مطالعه مولکولی پسیل‌های زبان‌گنجشک، (Psyllopsis (Hemiptera: Liviidae و باکتری Wolbachia همزیست داخلی آن‌ها

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، انگلیسی

نویسندگان

1 گروه تنوع زیستی، پژوهشگاه علوم و تکنولوژی پیشرفته و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تحصیلات تکمیلی صنعتی و فناوری پیشرفته، کرمان، ایران.

2 گروه بیوتکنولوژی، پژوهشگاه علوم و تکنولوژی پیشرفته و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تحصیلات تکمیلی صنعتی و فناوری پیشرفته، کرمان، ایران.

چکیده

سه گونه پسیل زبان­ گنجشک، Psyllopsis repens Loginova 1963، Psyllopsis securicola Loginova 1963  و  Psyllopsis machinosus Loginova 1963 که در آسیای مرکزی و اروپا گسترش دارند، از آفات مهم زبان­ گنجشک در مناطق شهری ایران محسوب می­شوند. حشرات بالغ و پوره ­ها، و همچنین میزبان و زیست ­شناسی آن­ها بسیار شبیه به هم است. به عبارتی دیگر، شناسایی ریخت­ شناختی آن­ها، به ویژه ماده ­ها و حشرات بالغ آسیب­ دیده که از روی تله­ های چسبنده جمع­ آوری می­شوند، دشوار است. بنابراین، یک روش شناسایی سریع و دقیق مورد نیاز است. در این مقاله توالی دو ژن سیتوکروم c اکسیداز زیر واحد یک (mtCOI) و سیتوکروم (b (cytb به عنوان نواحی بارکد و یک ژن wsp مربوط به ژنوم باکتری Wolbachiaهمزیست داخلی آن­ها (ولباکیا) در سه گونه مورد مطالعه بررسی شد. نتایج مقایسه­ های ژنتیکی نشان داد که ژن­ های cytb و mtCOI، به ترتیب، بیشترین تنوع بین­ گونه­ای را نشان می­ دهند. بر اساس نتایج، دو گونة P. machinosus و P. repens که روی یک میزبان با هم زندگی می­ کنند، احتمالاً به ­وسیله یک استرین باکتری ولباکیا آلوده شده ­اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Molecular study of ash psyllids, Psyllopsis (Hemiptera: Liviidae), and their Wolbachia endosymbiont

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadreza Lashkari 1
  • Saeid Mirzaei 2
  • Roghayeh Shamsi Gushki 1
1 Department of Biodiversity, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.
2 Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Three ash psyllid species, Psyllopsis repens Loginova 1963, Psyllopsis securicola Loginova 1963 and Psyllopsis machinosus Loginova 1963, which have been distributed in the Central Asia and Europe, are important pests on genus Fraxinus spp. in the urban area of Iran. They have similar adult and larval morphology as well as same host and biology. On the other hand morphologically identification of adults and nymph, especially for females and damaged adults by removal from sticky traps is difficult. Therefore, a fast and accurate identification method is required. Here we analyzed barcode sequence variation based on two mitochondrial gene regions, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) and cytochrome b (cytb) as DNA barcode, and one endosymbiont gene (wsp Wolbachia gene) among the species in southern Iran. The results of pairwise genetic distance values showed that cytb and mtCOI genes had the highest inter-specific variability. Based on the results, two species P. machinosus and P. repens which are present on one host plant together probably have been infected with similar Wolbachia strain.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Species identification
  • cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI)
  • cytochrome b (cytb)

Ahmed, M. Z., Barro, P. J., Ren, S. X. Greeff, J. M. & Qiu, B. L. (2016) Evidence for common horizontal transmission of Wolbachia among butterflies and moths. BMC Evolutionary Biology 16(1): 118.

Braig, H. R., Zhou, W., Dobson, S. & O’Neill, S. L. (1998) Cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the major surface protein of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis. Journal of Bacteriology180(9): 2373–2378.

Burckhardt, D. (1994) Psylloid pests of temperate and subtropical crop and ornamental plants (Hemiptera, Psylloidea): a review. Trends in Agricultural Sciences 2: 173–186.

Burckhardt, D. & Lauterer, P. (1993) The jumping plant-lice of Iran (Homoptera, Psylloidea).  Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100(4): 829–898.

Burckhardt, D. & Ouvrard, D. (2012) A revised classification of the jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea). Zootaxa3509: 1–34.

Conci, C. & Tamanini, L. (1990) Notes on the genus Psyllopsis (Homoptera: Psylloidea). Atti della Accademia Roveretana degli Agiati 29: 57–85.

Guidolin, A. S. & Consoli, F. L. (2013) Molecular Characterization of Wolbachia strains associated with the invasive asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri in Brazil. Microbial Ecology 65(2): 475–486.

Hebert, P. D. N., Cywinska, A. & Ball, S. L. (2003) Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 270(1512): 313–321.

Hodkinson, I. D (1974) The biology of the Psylloidea (Homoptera): a review. Bulletin of Entomological Research 64(02): 325–338.

Hodkinson, I. D. (1984) The biology and ecology of the gall forming Psylloidea (Homoptera). In: Biology of gall insects (Ed. t. N. Ananthakrishnan), 59–77. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi – Bombay – Calcutta.

Hodkinson, I. D. (2009). Life cycle variation and adaptation in jumping plant lice (Insecta: Hemiptera: Psylloidea): a global synthesis. Journal of Natural History 43(1–2): 65–179.

Jenkins, C., Chapman, T. A., Micallef, J. L. & Reynolds, O. L. (2012) Molecular techniques for the detection and differentiation of host and parasitoid species and the implications for fruit fly management. Insects 3(3): 763 –788.

Jeyaprakash, A. & Hoy, M. A. (2000) Long PCR improves Wolbachia DNA amplification: wsp sequences found in 76% of sixty-three arthropod species. Insect Molecular Biology 9(4): 393–405.

Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 16(2): 111–120.

Kumar, S., Stecher, G. & Tamura, K. (2016) MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution 33(7): 1870–1874.

Lashkari, M., Burckhardt, D. & Manzari, S.(2016). First report of ten psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) from Kerman province, Iran. Journal of Entomological Research 8(3) 223-235. (In Persian).

Lashkari, M., Manzari, S., Sahragard, A., Malagnini, V., Boykin, L. M. & Hosseini, R. (2015) Global genetic variation in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and the endosymbiont Wolbachia: links between Iran and the USA detect. Pest Management Science 70: 1033–1040.

Loginova, M. M. (1963) Jumping plant-lice of the genus Psyllopsis Löw (Homoptera, Psylloidea). Acta entomologica Musei nationalis Pragae 35: 183–196.

Malenovský, I. & Jerinić-Prodanović, D. (2011) A revised description of Psyllopsis repens Loginova, 1963 (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Psyllidae), with first records from Europe. Archives of Biological Sciences (Belgrade) 63(1): 257–286.

Rajabi Mazhar, N. A., Sadeqi, E., Omid, R. & Khanjani, M. (2004) Evaluation of the biology of Psyllopsis repens Log. and identification of  its natural enemies in Hamadan province of  Iran. Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Hamedan, 41. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=IR2007000868. Accessed 10 September 2017.

Liu, D., Trumble, J.T. & Stouthamer, R. (2006) Genetic differentiation between eastern populations and recent introductions of Potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) into Western North America. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 118(3): 177-183.

Meyer, J. M. & Hoy, M. A. (2008) Molecular survey of endosymbionts in Florida populations of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its parasitoids Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Florida Entomologist 91(2): 294–304.

Ossiannilsson, F. (1992) The Psylloidea (Homoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark, Brill.

Ouvrard, D. (2017) Psyl’list -The World Psylloidea Database. https://www.hemiptera-databases.org/psyllist. Accessed 10 September 2017.

Percy, D. M., Butterill, P. T. & Malenovský, I. (2016) Three new species of gall-forming psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) from Papua New Guinea, with new records and notes on related species. Journal of Natural History 50(17-18): 1073–1101.

Simon, C., Frati, F., Beckenbach, A., Crespi, B., Liu, H. & Floors, P. (1994) Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 87(6): 651–701.

Stouthamer, R., Breeuwer, J. A. J. & Hurst, G. D. D. (1999) Wolbachia pipientis: microbial manipulator of arthropod reproduction. Annual Reviews in Microbiology 53(1): 71–102.

Teixeira, L., Ferreira, A. & Ashburner, M. (2008) The bacterial symbiont Wolbachia induces resistance to RNA viral infections in Drosophila melanogaster. Plos Biology 6(12): e1000002.

Thao, M. L., Abbot, P., Brennan, E. B., Burckhardt, D. H. & Baumann, P. (2000) Cospeciation of psyllids and their primary prokaryotic endosymbionts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(7): 2898–2905.

Van Meer, M. M. M., Witteveldt, J. & Stouthamer, R. (1999) Phylogeny of the arthropod endosymbiont Wolbachia based on the wsp gene. Insect Molecular Biology 8: 399 –408.

Wang, Z. K. (2010) Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Wolbachia in the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) (Homoptera: Psylloidea) populations in partial areas in China. Acta Entomologica Sinica 53(9): 1045–1054.

Werren, J. H. (1997) Biology of Wolbachia. Annual Reviewe of Entomology 42: 587–609.