بررسی اثر چند ترکیب حشره کش روی بالشتک مرکبات Pulvinaria aurantii Ckll و شکارگر آن Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل، فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، گروه گیاهپزشکی، اردبیل

2 پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه های نیمه گرمسیری، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر، ایران

3 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

چکیده

بالشتک مرکبات، Pulvinaria aurantii Ckll. مهم‌ترین شپشک باغ‌های مرکبات شمال کشور است. اثر کشندگی حشره­کش­های کلرپایریفوس، استامی­پراید، پایری پروکسی­فن و پالیزین، به­تنهایی و همراه با روغن امولسیون شونده روی پوره‌های سن یک بالشتک مرکبات مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. آزمایش در شرایط طبیعی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 10 تیمار و 3 تکرار انجام و اثر تیمارها، 1، 7، 14 و 21 روز پس از سمپاشی مقایسه شد. علاوه بر این، اثر حشره­کش­های یاد شده روی دوره نابالغ و عمر حشره ماده کفشدوزک Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant بررسی شد. همچنین فعالیت برخی آنزیم­های غیرسمی کننده (گلوتاتیون اس-ترانسفراز، آلفا و بتا استراز) در لاروهای سن سوم کفشدوزک مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. آزمایش­ها روی کفشدوزک در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و در دمای 1±26 درجه سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5±75 درصد و دوره نوری 14 ساعت روشنایی و 10 ساعت تاریکی انجام شدند. تیمارهای استامی­پراید، پایری پروکسی­فن، پالیزین و کلرپایریفوس همراه با روغن، بیشترین درصد تلفات را در پوره‌های سن اول بالشتک ایجاد کردند. طولانی­ترین زمان تفریخ تخم کفشدوزک (13/8 روز) در تیمار کلرپایریفوس و کوتاه­ترین آن در تیمار شاهد (80/4 روز) به دست آمد. بین تیمارهای مورد آزمایش، کوتاه­ترین طول عمر حشرات کامل ماده کفشدوزک، در تیمار کلرپایریفوس (50/53 روز) مشاهده شد. کلرپایریفوس باعث بیشترین کاهش فعالیت آلفا استراز و استامی­پراید باعث بیشترین کاهش فعالیت گلوتاتیون اس-ترانسفراز در لارو سن سوم کفشدوزک شدند. پالیزین نسبت به سه حشره­کش دیگر اثر منفی کمتری روی فعالیت بتا استراز کفشدوزک داشت. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که در میان ترکیبات مورد بررسی، پالیزین همراه با روغن ترکیب مناسبی برای کنترل بالشتک مرکبات می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the effect of some insecticides on Pulvinaria aurantii Ckll. and its predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammd Fazel Hallaji Sani 1
  • Bahram Naseri 1
  • Hooshang Rafiee Dastjerdi 1
  • Sirous Aghajanzadeh 2
  • Mohammad Ghadamyari 3
1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil
2 Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Science Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Ramsar, Iran
3 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht
چکیده [English]

The orange pulvinaria scale, Pulvinaria aurantii Ckll. is the most important scale of citrus in the northern Iran. The lethal effects of chlorpyrifos, pyripropoxyfen, acetamiprid and palazin, alone and in combination with emulsifying oil, were evaluated on first-instar nymphs of P. aurantii. The experiment was conducted under natural condition in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and 10 treatments, and treatments effect was compared 1, 7, 14 and 21 days after spraying. Moreover, the effect of these insecticides was investigated on duration of immature stages and female longevity of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant. The activity of some detoxification enzymes (alpha-esterase, beta-esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) in third instar larvae was evaluated. The experiments on the ladybird were conducted under laboratory conditions at 26±1ºC, 75±5% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The treatments with acetamiprid + oil, pyripropoxyfen + oil, chlorpyrifos + oil and palazin + oil had the highest mortality on first nymphal instar of the scale. The longest incubation period of C. montrouzieri was in chlorpyrifos treatment (8.13 days), and the shortest was in control (4.80 days). Moreover, among treatments the female longevity of C. montrouzieri was the longest in control (96.60 days), and shortest in chlorpyrifos treatment (53.50 days). Chlorpyriphos and acetamipirid caused the highest reduction in alpha-esterase and glutathion-S-transferase activities of the third larval instar of C. montrouzieri, respectively. Also, palizin had less negative effect on the activity of beta-esterase in comparison with other tested insecticides. The results of this study indicated that among tested compounds, palizin in combination with the oil is a suitable compound to control of the orange pulvinaria scale.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • detoxification enzyme
  • palizin
  • lethal effect
  • chemical pesticide
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