اثرات میزبان گیاهی بر حساسیت شته لوبیا چشم بلبلی، Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) به قارچ بیمارگر حشرات، Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota, Hypocreales)

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل، انگلیسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، دانشکده کشاورزی، کرمان، ایران.

2 بخش تنوع زیستی،‌موسسه علوم و تکنولوژی کرمان

چکیده

در این مطالعه، حساسیت شته لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی، Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae)، به قارچ بیمارگر حشرات، (Ascomycota,  Hypocreales) Beauveria bassiana، جدایه DEBI008، با منشأChorthippus brunneus Tunberg 1815 (Orthoptera: Acrididae) که روی سه واریته لوبیای مختلف (لوبیا چیتی، لوبیا قرمز و لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی) تغذیه کردند در شرایط آزمایشگاهی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت (دمای1 ± 25 درجه سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 85 درصد و دوره نوری 16:8 (تاریکی:روشنایی)). شته‌های کامل یک ‌روزه با غلظت‌های زیر‌کشنده (LC10) قارچ بیمارگر شامل 104 × 7، 104 × 3/4 و 104 × 8 به‌ترتیب محاسبه ‌شده روی لوبیا چیتی، لوبیا قرمز و لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی تیمار و سپس، خصوصیات بیولوژیکی نتاج آن‌ها با استفاده از روش آنالیز جدول زندگی دوجنسی ویژه سن-مرحله و نرم‌افزار TWOSEX-MSChart تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد در شته‌های تیمار‌ شده با قارچ، مقادیر rm، T و λ در نتاج آن‌ها بین لوبیا چیتی (به­ترتیب 02/0 ± ‌17/0، 56/0 ± 2‌7/10 و 21/0 ± ‌19/1) و لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی (به‌ترتیب 01/0 ± ‌26/0، 25/0 ± 26‌/9 و 02/0 ± ‌30/1) به‌طور معنی‌دار متفاوت بود. با‌ این‌حال، اختلاف معنی‌دار در مقادیر R0 میان ارقام مختلف گیاهی وجود نداشت. به‌علاوه، پی برده شد که تیمار قارچی به‌طور معنی‌دار باعث کاهش باروری، طول عمر حشره کامل و طول زندگی نتاج شته با تغذیه روی هر کدام از واریته‌های گیاهی شد. در نهایت، نتایج نشان داد که بیش­ترین تأثیرات مطلوب قارچ B. Bassiana برای کنترل جمعیت شته لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی زمانی به‌دست آمد که شته‌ها روی گیاه لوبیا چیتی تغذیه کردند. این مسأله حاکی از‌ مناسب‌ بودن این واریته گیاهی برای مدیریت تلفیقی شته  A. craccivoraمی‌باشد. در مقایسه، شته‌های تغذیه ‌شده روی گیاه لوبیا چشم‌بلبلی کم­تر متحمل هزینه‌های کاهش شایستگی در اثر آلودگی قارچی شدند که نشان­دهنده نقش واریته گیاهی در دفاع شتهA. Craccivora مقابل بیمارگر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of host plants on the susceptibility of Cowpea Aphid, Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota, Hypocreales)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Ezzatabadipoor 1
  • A. Shirvani 1
  • M. Rashki 2
1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
2 Department of Biodiversity, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In this study, susceptibility of the cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana strain DEBI008 (Ascomycota, Hypocreales) originated from Chorthippus brunneus Tunberg (Orthoptera: Acrididae), fed on the three different bean varieties (pinto bean, kidney bean and cowpea), was investigated under laboratory conditions (at 25 ± 1 °C, 85% RH and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D). One-day-old adult aphids were treated by sublethal concentrations (LC10) of the fungus including 7.4 × 104, 4.3 × 104, and 8 × 104 calculated on pinto bean, kidney bean, and cowpea, respectively. The biological properties of their progeny were analysed using a two-sex fertility life table and TWOSEX-MSChart software. The results showed that the rm, T and ë values of their progeny were significantly different between pinto bean (0.17 ± 0.02, 10.72 ± 0.56 and 1.19 ± 0.02, respectively) and cowpea (0.26 ± 0.01, 9.26 ± 0.25 and 1.30 ± 0.02, respectively). There were no significant differences in the R0 values among the different plant varieties. We found that the fungal treatment significantly decreases fecundity, longevity and life span of the progeny fed on each plant variety. The results indicated that the most favourable effects of B. Bassiana was achieved when the aphids fed on pinto bean, implying the suitability of this variety for integrated management of A. craccivora. But the aphids that were fed on cowpea, suffered less fitness costs from fungul infection ,which reflected the function of host plant in defence of A. craccivora against the pathogen.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aphis craccivora
  • Beauveria bassiana
  • biological control
  • biological property
  • host plant
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